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JOHN McLaren 




• •* • • • •• • •••• •••• • ••• 




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• !•• •••••••• 

• m • m • • * • - a 

• • • -• ,•• .•.•••• • • •*• 

• ■ 


M I ^f 



I HIS handbook is respectfully submitted to gardeners in 
California, amateur and professional, as supplementary 
to, and a modification of those excellent treatises and 
encyclopedias on Landscape and Flower Gardening 
which have become the authorities and text-books on 
the subject, but which were written for the conditions of 
climate and season in European countries and the Eastern States of our 
own land. 

In California these conditions are so different, and the possibilities of 
the culture and development of trees, shrubs and flowers are so much 
greater than in Europe or any other of the United States of America, that 
our gardeners have had to do a great deal of original investigation and 
experimental work. The results of such investigation and work by the 
writer are recorded in these pages. 

The difference referred to is well illustrated by the universally loved 
Pansy which, in the Eastern States, is sown in February, flowering in May 
or June, while in California it is sown in July and flowers from November 
to May, and also by the Acacia which, in the East, is grown in pot in the 
conservatory, protected by glass and heated by artificial heat, whereas, in 
our State, it grows, a handsome tree, in any soil in the open air and flowers 
in midwinter. 

Although it has been found necessary to treat of the conservatory to a 
certain extent, yet this has been done only as subsidiary to the main pur- 
pose of the book, the treatment, in the conservatory, of plants which are 
not hardy in the open air Jocally, being the same here as in any other part 
of the country. It should, however, be kept in view that hundreds of trees, 
shrubs and flowers, which cannot possibly exist in the open air in those 
parts of the United States and Europe where the climatic conditions are 
more harsh than here, flourish and give grand effects out of doors in 

During his gardening experience of thirty-five years in various parts of 
California, but particularly during the past twenty years of his superin- 
tendency of Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, the author has had, from 




all over the State, a great number of inquiries and requests for advice and 

These inquiries have become so numerous that it has been practically 
impossible for him to answer them all, and such replies as he has been able 
to give have necessarily been very brief. He therefore believes that his 
experience, as now embodied in this book, will be of interest and perhaps 
value to those who take delight in the wonderful results with which the 
fertile soil and genial climate of our State reward their earnest and loving 

It is believed that the practical value of the work is added to by the 
illustrations which are all from photographs especially taken for this 

In writing the book the author has had the able collaboration and 
assistance of his friend Mr. James C. Fyfe of San Francisco, of which, in 
this place he desires to record his deep and grateful appreciation. 

That this book may give pleasure and be of use to all who strive to 
make our State even more attractive by adding to the beauties of its land- 
scape and gardens, is the earnest hope of 


San Francisco, December, 1908. 


This opportunity is taken to make a few additions and to correct such 
t)T)Qgraphical errors as were overlooked in the first edition. 

The additional recommendations in Chapter V for the transplanting of 
large trees and shrubs embody the method followed by the writer for years, 
the eflFectiveness of which has been particularly noticeable in the transplant- 
ing of the great number of large trees into the grounds of the Panama 
Pacific International Exposition of 191 5. 
San Fhancisco, December, 1914. 



Preface v 

The LocAnoN of a Site for House and Garden and the Pre- 
liminary Plans i 



Planning the Pleasure-garden and Grounds 12 

Preparation of the Ground 37 

Construction of Roads and Walks 40 

Planting and Transplanting 47 

Lawns 55 

Trees and Shrubs 60 

Climbers and Twiners 171 

Bulbous and Tuberous-rooted plants 182 

Palms 194 

Ferns . . 203 




Bamboos and Grasses 208 

Succulents 216 


Herbaceous and Bedding Plants 225 


Ponds, Lakes and the Water Garden 281 

Parlor Gardening 293 

The Window Box 295 

The Amateur's Conservatory 299 


Treatment of the Common Diseases of, and Insects Injurious 
TO Plants 302 

A Few Explanations and Directions 309 

Sand Reclamation 319 

Calendar of Operations 329 




Gateway Shaded by Trees 3 

Outline of Lawn and Grouping of Trees 7 

Grounds Decorated with Palms. Cocos plumosa as Sidewalk 

Tree 9 

Cottages with Lawns in Front. Fan Palms (Washingtonia 

SoNORiE) AS Sidewalk Trees iS 

Planting List and Plan for Lot 25' x 120' 20 



• 23 

26, 27 

28, 29, 30 


Planting List and Plan for Lot 40' x 120 
Planting List and Plan for Lot 50' x 150 
Planting List and Plan for Lot 75' x 150 
Planting List and Plan for Lot 100' x 180 
Planting List and Plan for Lot 150' x 200 
Planting List and Plan for Lot 200' x 350 
Planting List and Plan for Lot 300' x 400 
Planting List and Plan for Ten-acre Tract . 32,33,34,35,36 
Walk with Rustic Benches. Background of Pines and Firs 41 
Formal Gardening. Walks Converging to Fountain. Back- 
ground Heavily Wooded 43 

Driveway Showing California Laurel (to Left of Illustra- 
tion) AND Oaks; also Ivy-covered Stump 45 

Walk Lined with Dracaenas 46 

Moving a Palm 35 Feet High and Weighing Over 40 Tons. 

Wine Palm of Chile (Jub^a spectabilis) 49 

Lawn Outline. Eucalyptus and Conifers 54 

Lawn with Tree Groups 57 

Abelia rupeStris 60 

Abies Mertensiana 61 

Abies Morinda 63 

Abutilon 64 

Acacia armata 65 

Acacia lophanta 65 


Albizzia Julibrissin 68 

Azalea '. 72 





Buxus 76 

Callistemon 77 

Camellia 78 

Cassia 80 

Casuarina 81 

Ceanothus 81 

Cedrus Libani. (Young Specimen) 82 

Portugal Laurel 83 

CERas 84 

Cestrum 84 

Choisya ternata 85 

CiSTUS 85 

Clianthus puniceus 87 

Cotoneaster ' 90 


CuPRESSUs Lawsoniana 93 

Broom 94 

Datura Suaveolens 95 

EcHiUM 97 

Erica persoluta alba 98 

Escallonia rosea 100 

Eucalyptus ficifolia loi 

Eugenia latifolia 105 

Fabiana 107 


FrAXINUS excelsior Ill 

Gardenia 112 

Hypericum 117 

lochroma tubulosa ii9 


Lantana 123 

Lasiandra macrantha 124 

An Arbor of Leptospermum LiEviGATUM 125 

Leptospermum 127 

libocedrus decurrens 1 28 

Ligustrum Japonicum 129 

Magnolia stellata 131 




Melaleuca Leucadendron 132- 

Mespilus Japonica 

Metrosideros robusta 

Nandina domestica 



A Group of Pines 



Prunus sinensis 



quercus suber 


romneya coulteri 

Sequoia gigantea 

Spartium junceum 




Syringa vulgaris 


Thuya gigantea 

torreya coulteri 


Veronica decussata 

Viburnum Tinus 





Lathyrus odoratus 


Mandevilla suaveolens 

muehlenbeckia complexa 



























Narcissus i88 


Phcenix Canariensis 198 

Natural Group of Washingtonias (CALiPORjaA Fan Palms) 201 

Group of Tree Ferns 205 

Ferns and Grasses in Rockery 209 

Bamboos 213 

Pampas Grass 217 

Aloe vera 219 

EcHEVERiA 221 

Crassula coccinea 222 

Mesembryanthemum spectabile 223 

Sedum 224 

Ageratum 226 

Begonia Vernon 232 

Campanula carpatica 234 

Canna indica 23s 

Cineraria hybrida 238 

Dahlia imperialis 240 

Digitalis 245 

DoRONicuM 245 

Fuchsia 246 

Specimen of Fuchsia 247 

Stock 256 

Pentstemon 262 

Petunia 263 

Poinsettia 266 

Primula obconica 267 

Verbena 276 

Pansy 277 

Small Lake with Pampas Grass 283 

Small Lake Bordered with Willow and Pine 287 

Pond with Lilies 289 

Babylonian Willow 292 

Window Boxes 297 

Interior of Greenhouse 300 

Canary Islands Date-palm 308 

Formal Gardening with Grass Walks 321 




Eucalyptus in Sand Near Coast 323 

Albizzia Julibrissin in Flower 327 

DEaDuous Oaks 331 

Terraced Front. Camphor-trees on Sidewalk 337 

Lawn and Driveway 343 

Hedge Front, Clipped Trees and Palms 351 

Formal Approach, with Italian Cypress 359 

Summer House. Standard Roses on Border of Path . 365 

Group of Varieties of Palms 371 


» o i 





[S THE location and laying out of the grounds 
which he has to cultivate are important factors 
in the success of the gardener in California, as 
elsewhere, a few practical suggestions upon these 
points are deemed advisable and in keeping with 
the general plan of the book. Before the best selection can be 
made, one must have a general knowledge not only of the locality 
where he intends his home and garden to be, but also of its sur- 
roundings. Many important points should be taken into con- 
sideration — especially the aspect and the altitude — ^in deciding 
whether the top of a hill, or a hillside, or a flat, low, sheltered 
spot is to be preferred. 

How much not only the locality but also the aspect (that is 
whether facing the North, South, East or West) affects the cul- 
ture of the garden can scarcely be appreciated by those who have 
not studied this very important subject. For example, few may 
realize the difference, in the one point of shelter, between a gar- 
den laid out facing the North and one facing the South, or (par- 
ticularly in San Francisco where the prevailing wind in the 
Summer season is from the West) between a garden facing the 
East and one laid out so as to face the West. 

In choosing a site for a dwelling-house and garden, an aspect 
facing the South or South-east should be preferred, as it will be 
better sheltered from the prevailing winds and have a much 


•••• • aaa-** 

•; • • • • • •^•. . . 

• •••:• I • T \ • 


warmer temperature than one facing the West or North. Land 
facing the South will have earlier flowers and may be more com- 
fortably visited and enjoyed at all seasons, as the ground and 
walks will dry more quickly after watering or after rains than 
they would if facing the North. 

Another exceedingly important point to be kept in view is 
that water — and w^ater in abundance — must be provided for a 
garden, for unless there is an ample supply during our long Sum- 
mer, gardening in general cannot be successful. Therefore it is 
necessary, before selecting a site for the garden, to see that water 
may be had in generous quantities and at all times, either from 
weUs, by pipe from a reservoir, or by ditch from a stream. In the 
neighborhood of cities and large towns it may be procured from 
public works, and, of course, within the cities water can be had 
in any reasonable quantity desired, but in the country or where 
there are no public pipes in the vicinity, wells will have to be 
bored or dug, or a supply procured by the other means suggested. 

After the site is selected, the next study should be the pre- 
liminary plan for the improvement of the ground, the first and 
most important point to be decided being upon what part of the 
site the dwelling-house shall be built. This requires long and 
careful study, for the ground must be visited frequently and at 
different times of the day, in stormy weather as well as when 
the days are warm and sunny. Consideration must be given to 
the views that may be enjoyed from the windows of the different 
rooms, and, in connection with this, it is necessary to anticipate 
the possible use to which the adjoining properties may be put,, 
especially as to whether there is a likelihood of buildings being 
erected so as to interfere with or be a blot upon expected views. 
Then if there are any objectionable features on neighboring 
properties, this is the time when the plans should be prepared 
so that, in the arrangement of the building and planting of the 
grounds, these objectionable points may be shut off from view 
as much as possible. 


Gateway Shaded by Treec 


When the part of the grounds upon which the house is to be 
built has been determined, it should be staked off with strong 
stakes (say four-inch by four-inch pine), driven in three feet 
and standing five feet above the ground, so that the four comers 
of the proposed house may be seen from some distance, and that 
thus the effect of the building may be studied from the street, or, 
if the grounds are of large extent, from different points along the 
lines of the projected drive or walks leading to the building. 
Where very large grounds are to be laid out, flags set on tall 
poles will be necessary to properly define the outlines when the 
effect is viewed from a distance, and, at this time also, the sites 
for stables and any other necessary outbuildings should be 
staked off in similar way. It is hardly necessary to say that 
such buildings as the stables must be placed at the rear of the 

The house must, of course, be connected, by either a walk or 
driveway or both, with the street or public road, and an entrance 
gateway provided at the most convenient and effective part of 
the frontage, so the next step to take is to determine where the 
main gateway shall be located. This, if possible, should be at a 
point where the street or public road is on the same level. 

After the spot for the gateway is located, the approach to 
the house should be staked off by a center line of stakes. The 
principal roadway should be carefully studied from every view- 
point, that is, from the house site, from the gateway and from 
other points where the effect will be seen, no pains being spared 
to insure this being planned out in the best possible manner and 
along the best possible line. When the grounds are of consider- 
able extent, it should also be made sure that a glimpse of the 
house will be had from one or two points along the road. The 
side lines for the principal roadway should then be staked off, 
these, if a driveway, being at least sixteen feet apart, or, if a 
foot-path, not less than eight feet. The stakes should be at least 
one and one-quarter inch square by about three feet in length, 



and driven one foot deep, leaving two feet above the ground to 
mark the lines of the proposed drive or walk. 

After the principal approach to the house-site has been 
decided upon and staked out, the necessary walks and roads 
connecting the house-site with the sites of the stables and other 
outbuildings must be marked and staked in similar way as for the 
main approach. It is strongly urged that care should be taken 
to have these walks in reasonably direct lines, for unless they are 
direct, they will not be followed, and those who are compelled 
to go to the outbuildings many times a day will be sure to make 
short cuts, trampling down grass and perhaps fine shrubbery, such 
foot-paths and trails always giving an uncared-for effect and 
being blemishes in any property. 

Before beginning the planting of the trees and shrubs for 
sheltering and ornamenting the grounds (this subject being fully 
considered in other chapters) , the grounds should be carefully sur- 
veyed and platted, the house-site, the sites of the outbuildings, the 
approach and roads of all kinds being marked on the plat. 

When the grades and positions of the different buildings have 
been established and marked, and the approach and other roads 
staked off, all the building-sites should be roughly graded, and 
the fills, if any, on the roadways and walks leveled up. 

But first, before beginning this rough grading, careful pro- 
vision must be made for saving all of the good top-soil which may 
be found on the sites of the buildings, the roads and the walks. 
The importance of this will be realized when the work of plant- 
ing the ground is taken up and when this good top-soil will be 
of the greatest value. How often do we find that this exceedingly 
valuable natural soil has been carelessly used for making fills or 
road-beds and embankments, instead of having been saved for 
improving the many pieces of poor soil for which this natural 
top-soil would have been the covering. Every yard of such good 
soil saved from grading operations can be used at some point of 
the grounds where trees, shrubs and plants are to be set out. 



After the survey of the grounds has been platted, (as sug- 
gested above, the sites of the main building and outhouses as 
well as the lines of the roads and walks being marked on that 
plat), the next important work will be preparing the plan of 
planting, and this, in its tum, will require the most careful 

If the grounds, which are to be planted, are exposed, strong- 
growing hardy trees which will stand the harsh, drying winds 
will have to be selected for the outer planting or sheltering 
groups, reliance being placed upon these hardy, sturdy, vigorous 
growers to give shade and shelter to those tender but more orna- 
mental kinds which cannot stand so much exposure. 

Should the site be well sheltered naturally by trees or by 
neighboring hills, or should it be in a flat open country, it will 
not be necessary to plant the common, hardy trees in such large 
numbers for that purpose. 

Outline of Lawn and Grouping of Tree*. 



In preparing the plan of planting, care should be taken to 
connect the different groups under one general plan, and not to 
gather the trees and shrubs in spots or in stiff, formal lines at 
equal distances apart. Perhaps the best place from which to 
study the plan (of planting and grouping the trees and shrubs) 
is from the house-site, the effect being judged from the points on 
the house-site where the principal windows and doors and veran- 
das will be. When the grounds are large enough, the main lawns 
or grass plots will, of course, be located immediately about the 
house, and the groups of trees with their undergrowth of shrubs 
can be massed round and about the lawns, these forming the out- 
lines for the grassy surface. These outlines should be made as 
informal as the nature and size of the grounds will permit. Bold 
points of trees and shrubbery should project into the lawn space, 
and again the grassy surface should be allowed to run deep into, 
as if getting lost among, the tree groups, the plan always avoid- 
ing anything formal either in the shape of the grassy inlets or 
of the shrubbery groups. 

In this connection it is suggested that some consideration be 
given to what may be termed the happy accidents of Nature's 
planting, for in some of the untouched virgin spots in Nature's 
garden there are scenes more soft and more beautiful than any- 
thing our gardening has yet produced. Those who have under- 
taken to do what we are now considering — that is, to plant a 
pleasure-garden and lawns — and are in doubt as to how to estab- 
lish the lines of the lawns or the groups of trees, shrubs and 
flowers, may get invaluable suggestions for the arranging of 
them in harmonious composition if they will, as our greatest 
painters do, go into the natural forests of our hills and hillsides, 
or the meadows and haughs of our valleys, and select, from 
the innumerable beautiful scenes, the one whose beauty most 
appeals to them and which seems to best fit the general outline 
of the site for which the plans are being prepared. Then let the 
measurements of this part of Nature's garden be carefully taken, 



figuring what are its length, and its breadth, what are the depth 
and width of the grassy bays which seem to meander through the 
forest, also the form and shape which these bays assume. It 
will be found that Nature seldom runs straight lines and shaped 
curves. Let the woody promontories be measured, figuring 
how far each one projects into the meadow and noting how 
Nature has done its planting, — ^how far one tree is from the 
other and how harmonious the whole plan is. 

After all of the trees with their names and characteristics 
have been sketched into a rough map, the different shrub- 
growths should next be similarly studied and sketched in, how 
they are distributed being specially noted. After these, and any 
other data which seem to be of importance in the general effect, 
are carefully platted, let this rough sketch be laid out to scale and 
reduced or enlarged to fit the plan for the proposed grounds. If 
the proportions of the original are faithfully carried out and 
imitated in the form and outlines of the lawns and in the character 
and planting of the trees and undergrowth the result will be a 
delight to the owner and an artistically laid out property. 

There are numerous instances of such spots in our redwood 
forests and in the Sierras. Some of the sweetest landscapes are 
to be found in these mountain meadows, and they always afford 
the greatest delight to the eye of taste when they are unexpect- 
edly discovered, enriched, as they are, with beds and tufts of 
wUdflowers, grasses and ferns. 

The form and outlines of the different groups of shelter-belts 
being platted, what to plant in each and what character of pic- 
ture to aim for are treated in detail in Chapter II. When preparing 
the plan of planting, it should be considered of the utmost im- 
portance to break and soften the hard lines of groups by planting 
single trees apart from the main bodies in the groups 





I HE subject of this chapter is one which should 

n receive very careful consideration before the work 

J is actually begun, and a detailed Plan of plant- 

J7 ing should be sketched out, especially keeping in 

view what the effect of the trees, shrubs and plants 

will be when they reach maturity. What that plan of planting 

actually may be depends very greatly upon how the ground is 


If the site selected is on a hill, the character of the planting 
will be entirely different from that of a location on a level plain, 
where the situation is more likely to be well sheltered and favored 
with a deep, rich soil. 

In this, as in every work we undertake, the first thing to be 
considered is the end in view, and the next the best means of 
attaining that end. As, in the planting of a Pleasure-Garden 
and Grounds, the end to be attained is how the trees and plants 
shall be most effectively placed (both that they themselves shall 
appear to the best advantage and also that each tree and each 
group of plants and shrubs shall contribute its full proportion to 
the effective laying out of the property as a whole), in order to 
attain that end, it is necessary to take advantage of every point in 
the natural formation of the location. 

As has just been stated, the character of the planting on a 
hillside site is very different from that on a site located in a shel- 
tered valley. On a hillside site the ground is seldom of an even 
nature, there frequently being projecting points of land or rocky 
outcroppings showing through the surface. These projecting 
points should be ornamented with hardy, strong-growing trees 


such as the Pine, Eucalyptus, Acacia, Cypress, Redberry and 
others of this class. No shrub, either exotic or indigenous, is so 
well adapted to the planting of a rocky ridge or in the foreground 
of hillside groups as our native Holly (Heteromeles arbutif olia) . 
Another native which groups well in any such situation is our 
evergreen shrub Oak. Like the Redberry, its leaf has a good 
color, it has a semi-drooping habit of growth, it is evergreen and 
grows on dry banks on any exposure either North, South, East 
or West, excepting within a mile from the ocean, where, if fac- 
ing the West and much exposed, it is apt to get wind-blown and 
generally does not thrive so well. 

Where a shrubbery effect is desired and the soil is rich, some 
other shrub must be substituted, as the effect of a good soil will 
be to force the Oak into tree shape and to grow too large for a 
shrub effect, but where the soil is of a loose, rocky nature, and 
not too rich, the evergreen native shrub Oak gives one of the best 
effects possible without cultivation or irrigation. 

These hardier trees are recommended also for planting on the 
outer lines of groimds of the extent of about one acre or over, or 
on those portions of a Pleasure-Garden which are much exposed 
or beyond the reach of the hose, and, as already suggested, they 
can be planted at any parts where the soil is poor. 

For the planting of groups or clumps to be located immedi- 
ately about the lawns or near hydrants where they can be 
watered, a much larger variety of trees and shrubs may be drawn 
from, the Bamboo, the Birch, the Maple, the Hawthorn, the 
Lilac, the Laurel and many others giving character and com- 
pleteness to the composition. 

Where the groimds are as large as from three to four acres, 
separate groups of each genus should be planted. For instance, 
exceedingly effective groups can be formed by planting a mass 
consisting of three or four varieties of Pines; another of Euca- 
lyptus in variety; another of Spruce and Fir; another of a vari- 
ety of evergreen Oaks; another of our native Laurel; another 



of Redwood; another of Cedar, and so on; and again, these 
may be planted so as to form combinations. Such trees as the 
Maple and Sycamore, or Cedar (Thuya) and Coast Redwood 
combine beautifully, but it must be particularly kept in view 
that grouping round-headed trees with those which are of pyra- 
midal habit is a mistake. Round-headed trees must be grouped 
with those of the same habit, and pyramidal trees with those 
of similar form, the effect always being pleasing, but mixing 
those two shapes in the same group mars the effect and ruins 
the composition. 

Evergreens and deciduous trees harmonize very well in a 
group, provided they are of the same shape and outline. For 
instance, a group formed by combining the Bamboo with the 
Birch is most pleasing, both of these being of the same graceful 
semi-pendulous habit. 

It should, then, be remembered, in massing groups of trees 
for planting, that form and habit should be studied much more 
closely than any other quality. 

. In planning the groups it may be found desirable and effec- 
tive to form some entirely of evergreens, others entirely of de- 
ciduous trees and shrubs, and others of a mixture -of both, a very 
good combination being a group of our native Laurel and the 
European Linden, because both are of the same graceful habit 
of growth. 

The same rule appUes to the planting of shrubbery masses; 
the stiff and the formal should never be associated with the 
rounded, free-spreading kinds — that is, the kinds whose limbs 
spread wide and rest gracefully on the surface of the lawn. 

In the disposition of a number of sorts of trees and shrubs 
in the landscape, the same principle must be followed in produc- 
ing variety and harmony. If they are mixed together in a 
haphazard way, the results will very rarely be pleasing, but, 
at the same time, monotony must be guarded against. For 
example, groups of Oaks should not be followed by groups of 



round-headed trees, but rather by a mass formed of such trees as 
the California Laurel, while next to the Laurel might come the 
Poplar or some other tree of similar column-shaped head and 
symmetry. Then again, when groups meet, they might some- 
times be blended together. For example, a group of Oaks, 
adjoining a group of California Laurels, might be blended into 
the Laurel group, by the Oaks being planted so as to overlap the 
Laurels and the Laurels the Oaks, as is to be found in natural 

The same rule applies to shrubs and even to flowers at the 
extreme points of the groups. 

When a group of Pines adjoins a group of Live Oaks, it is 
always desirable to blend the two groups at the junction of the one 
with the other, care being taken to avoid regular progression and 
everything like formality, and it being borne in mind that 
grounds- laid out according to simple plans are generally much 
more pleasing than those laid out on overpretentious lines. 

After the walks and drives are laid out (this subject being 
fully treated in Chapter IV) the next important work should be 
the mapping of the water-pipe system. 

For a garden of about four acres in extent, a two-inch main 
will be necessary. This main should be laid along the middle 
of the ground with one and one-half inch branches laid at right 
angles from the main, about one hundred feet apart from each 
other (the first branch from the main to be laid fifty feet from 
the fence line), and with stand-pipes and connections to fit the 
hydrants also one hundred feet apart, so that any part of the 
garden may be reached with a single fifty-foot length of hose. 

How often do we see both amateur and professional gar- 
deners struggling to reach some favorite which unfortunately 
has been planted just out of reach of the last length of hose! 
It should always be borne in mind that water-pipe, even of the 
best quality, is much cheaper than hose, also that iron pipe lasts 
in the ground at least twenty years, whereas the life of the 



average rubber hose never exceeds two years, and very often is 
not more than one year. 

Where a good pressure may be had from public water- works 
and when the supply is steady and reliable, it may not be neces- 
sary to construct a water-tank, but, where pimiping has to be 
resorted to, or the public supply is liable to be shut off at times, 
it is well to have a water-tank erected. The tank should be of 
generous dimensions, and should be placed at least sixty feet 
above the level of the groimds to be irrigated. Of course, a lower 
tower would give some pressure, but the higher the source of 
the water supply and the nearer it is placed to the point of dis- 
tribution the better the results and the shorter the time required 
to water or sprinkle the grounds, so, on the score of economy as 
well as efficiency, the tank should be placed at least sixty feet in 

It has been deemed advisable to introduce a few planting 
plans, suitable for lots and gardens of various sizes, not neces- 
sarily to be rigidly adhered to in ever}^ particular, but to be used 
as suggestions. 

Many additional species, or their varieties, may be substi- 
tuted for or added to the suggestions, care being taken however 
that the principal plantings shall be of such species as are known 
to succeed and do well in the locality. It should be borne in 
mind that many species flourish in warm simny portions of the 
State while others give best results in the cool atmosphere of 
the coast regions; for instance, as stated in the text, the Oleander 
is not reconamended for the cool climate of San Francisco while 
the Fuchsia attains in that vicinity its most perfect growth. 






For Lot 25' X 120'. 














Acacia melanoxylon. 

Veronica decussata. 

Choisya temata. 


Buxus sempervirens. 

Viburnum Tinus. 

Clianthus pimiceus. 


Climbing Rose. 



Coprosma Baueriana and Spanish Broom. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana. 

Crataegus Oxyacantha rubra. 





Ligustrum Japonicum. 

Erica Mediterranea. 

Climbing Roses. 






For Lot 40' X 120'. 




















Sugar Maple or Sterculia. 

Phoenix reclinata or Brahea sonorae. 


Pittosporum tobira. 

Euonymus Japonica aurea. 

Escallonia rubra. 

Choisya temata. 

Veronica decussata. 

Climbing Roses and Geraniums. 

Magnolia grandiflora and Perennial 

Coprosma Baueriana and Violets. 
Cestrum aurantiacum. 
Cerasus Lauro-Cerasus. 

Arbutus Unedo. 

Acacia moUissima. 
Leptospermum laevigatum. 
Acacia dealbata. 
Spiraea (bridal wreath). 
Aucuba Japonica. 
Spartium junceum. 
Flower Border. 


^% ^ ^ 





For Lot 50' X 150'. 


1. Phoenix Canariensis. 

2. Border of Violets or Ivy or 

Creeping Jumper. 

3. Climbing Roses, Honeysuckle, 

Clematis, etc. 

4. Choisya temata. 

5. Veronica decussata. 

6. Aralia Sieboldiana. 

7. Bougainvillea. 

8. Walk. 

9. Aucuba. 

10. Viburnum Tinus grandiflorum. 

11. Pittosporum. 

1 2 . Grevillea robusta. 

13. Euonymus and Pyrus Japonica. 

14. Acacia Cultriformis and Lilac. 

15. Acacia mollissima. 

16. Escallonia rosea and Philadel- 


17. Acacia dealbata and Spirsea. 

18. Thuya gigantea. 

19. Leptospermum laevigatum and 


20. Bamboo. 

21. Coprosma Baueriana. 

22. Boxwood. 

23. Aucuba Japonica. 

50 X 150' 






Pitto^Mjnim eugenioides. 


Escallonia rosea. 


Choisya ternata. 


Euonymus Japonica aurea. 


Coprosma Baueriana. 




Buxus sempervirens. 



Aucuba sempervirens. 




Viburnum Tinus. 




Acacia armata. 


Grevillea robusta. 


Cerasus Lauro-Cerasus. 


Cerasus Lauro-Cerasus. 



Cypress Lawsoniana. 






Acacia latifolia. 


Hawthorn and Diervilla. 


Birch and Leptospermum. 


Linden and Acacia fragrans. 



-^ 28. 


Ligustrum and Broom. 

\ m \ \ i©~ 



Portugal Laurel 



Roses and Eugenia latifolia. 




Maytenus boaria. 





Magnolia grandiflora and 



I. Huntingdon Elm. 


Photinia arbuUfoha. 

2. Retinospora obtusa. 


Daphne and Spinea. 




For Lot loo' X i8o'. 


1. Sugar Maple, Camphor or red Hawthorn. 

2. Magnolia grandiflora and Aucuba Japonica. 

3. Juniperus prostrata. 

4. Juniperus prostrata. 

5. Three plants of Retinospora in each bed, carpeted with flowers 

6. Pittosporum eugenioides. 

7. Boxwood or Laurus nobilis. 

8. Heliotrope, Violets, Pansies, etc. 

9. Standard Roses. 

10. Clematis, Bignonia, Fuchsia, etc. 

11. Fence covered with Honeysuckle, Climbing Roses, etc. 

12. Mandevill a suaveolens, Solanum Wendlandii, etc. 

13. Climbing Roses, Passion Vine, etc. 

14. Monterey Cypress. 

15. Pepper, Spiraea Watersii and Romneya Coulteri. 

16. Acacia moUissima and Diervilla. 

17. Libocedrus decurrens and Spartium juriceum. 

18. Wistaria and Bignonia. 

19. Wistaria and Bignonia Tweediana. 

20. Pittosporum tobira and Streptosolen. 

21. Ligustrum Japonicun) and Pimelia rosea. 

22. Escallonia rosea. Lilac and Prunus Mume. 

23. Portugal Laurel and Philadelphus. 

24. Hedge of Pittosporum nigricans. 

25. Euon)mius Japonica aurea. 

26. Carnations, Violets, etc. 

27. Climbing Roses. 

28. Mandevill a suaveolens. Phlox, etc. 

29. Rhododendron Catawbiense. 

30. Climbing Roses, Delphinium, etc. 

31. Arbutus Unedo and Ilex aquifolium. 

32. Coprosma Baueriana. 


1 L 



For Lot 150' X 200'. 


1. Boxwood. 

2. Retinospora obtusa. 

3. Choisya temata and Diosma ericoides. 

4. Veronica decussata and Pimelia rosea. 

5. Coprosma Baueriana and Aucuba Japonica. 

6. Camphor and Abelia. 

7. Rhododendron or Neriiim splendens. 

8. Wistaria, shading pergola. 

9. Bamboo. 

10. Portugal Laurel and Acacia mollissima. 

1 1 . Laurus Tinus or Laurus nobilis. 

12. Acacia latifolia and Philadelphus coronarius. 

13. Lilac and Myrtle. 

14. Albizzia Julibrissin and Spartiimi junceum. 

15. Pittosporum eugenioides. 

16. Hawthorn and Spiraea (bridal wreath). 

17. Hedge of Ligustrum Japonicum. 

18. Himtingdon Elm or Acacia melanoxylon. 

19. Roses and other flowering plants. 

20. Roses, Carnations, etc. 

21. Fuchsias, Hydrangeas, etc. 

22. Fruit Trees. 

23. Pepper. 

24. Monterey Cypress. 

25. Geraniums. 

26. Lawn. 



f^> ^^ 






For Lot 200' X 350'. 


1. Phoenix Canariensis and Honey- 


2. Bamboo. 

3. Choisya temata and Daphne. 

4. Choisya temata and Duranta 


5. Bamboo. 

6. Coprosma Baueriana. 

7. Pittosporum eugenioides and 


8. Maytenus boaria and Diosma 


9. Maytenus Chilensis and SoUya 


10. Clematis Jackmanii and Ivy 


11. Clematis Jackmanii and Ivy 


12. Veronica decussata and Viola 


13. Mandevilla suaveolens and 


14. Wistaria and red Geranium. 

15. Coronilla glauca and Cytisus 


16. Myrtle and Carnations. 

17. Juniperus Chinensis and Juni- 

perus prostrata. 

18. Rhododendron. 

19. Camellia and Gardenia Fortuni. 

20. Ampelopsis Veitchii and flower- 

ing plants. 

21. Retinospora obtusa and Pimelia 


22. Roses. 

23. Pittosporum eugenioides and 
Corynecarpus laevigatus. 

24. Escallonia Montevidensis and 

25. Bamboo. 

26. Arbutus Unedo and Boxwood. 

27. Heteromeles serratifolia. 

28. Camphor and Jasminum nudi- 

29. Hymenosporum flavum and 

30. Ligustrum Japonicum and Ligu- 
strum ibota. 

31. Sugar Maple and Philadelphus. 

32. Acacia moUissima and Pnmus 

33. Portugal Laurel and Japanese 
Weeping Cherry. 

34. Tilia Europea and Viburnum 

35. Pepper Trees and Leptosper- 
mum laevigatum. 

36. Monterey Cypress and Spartium 

37. Monterey Pine and Cistus. 

38. Liquidambar and Lilac. 

39. Liriodendron tulipifera and 

40. Hedge of Blackberries. 

41. Salisburia adiantifolia Ginkgo 
and Tamarix. 

42. Lawson Cypress and Diervilla. 

43. Quercus macrophylla and La- 

44. Acacia latifolia. 



e<^ffi/^ csp^err -&sg«^ 

200' X 350' 




For Lot 200' X 350' — Continued. 





45. Crataegus oxyacant.ha and Cra- 

52. Cedrus Libani and Streptosolen 

taegus pyracantha. 


46. Grevillea robusta and Erythrina 

53. Abies Nordmannia and Swain- 


sonia alba. 

47. Thuya gigantea and Rhododen- 

54. Bamboo and Pampas Grass. 

dron Catawbiense. 

55. Hedge of Acacia longifolia. 

48. Phillyrea myrtifolia and per- 

56. Ulmus montana. 

ennial Phlox. 

57. Juniperus prostrata. 

49. Cedrus Deodora and Abelia 

58. Cotoneaster. 


59. Juniperus prostrata. 

50. Abies Lowiana and Clianthus 

60. Cotoneaster. 


61. Junif)erus prostrata. 

51. Prunus Caroliniana and Albizzia 

62. Ulmus montana. 


63. Orchard. 


For Lot 300' X 400'. 


1. Boxwood or Nerium splendens. 

2. Escallonia rosea, grown thickly 

so as to form a dense screen 
ten feet in height. 

3. Pittosporum eugenioides. 

4. Arbutus Unedo. 

5. Portugal Laurel. 

6. Corynecarpus and Hymeno- 

sporum flavum. 

7. Leptospermum laevigatum. 

8. Acacia latifolia. 

9. Laurus Tinus grandi flora. 
10. Cerasus Lauro-Cerasus. 


11. Bamboo. 

12. Lilac, Leptospermum laeviga- 
tum and Prunus Mume. 

13. Acacia mollissima. 

14. Lilac and Callistemon. 

15. Ligustrum ovatum, Escallonia 
rosea and Laurus Tinus. 

16. Flower-bed. 

17. Grevillea robusta and Berberis 

18. Umbellularia and Romneya 

19. Schinus moUe. 




O <[) 

CD <^ ^ e e 

£) e t> c^ c> £> <^ 



C' cr e f^ ^ t> €] 

e # c €i C) e 


300' X 400' 


For Lot 300' X 400' — Continued. 


20. Coprosma Baueriana. 

21. Brahea Sonoraea. 

22. Pittosporum tobira. 

23. Choisya temata and Diosma 


24. Veronica decussata. 

2 5 . Ulmus montana or Tilia Europea 



26. Escallonia Montevidensis. 

27. Magnolia grandiflora. 

28. Maytenus boaria. 

29. Hedge of Pittosporum 


30. Rhododendron hybridum. 


For Ten Acre Tract. 





I. Hawthorn, Lilac and Eugenia 

18. Olive. 


19. Redwood, Philadelphus and 

2. Cypress. 

Cydonia Japonica. 

3. Rock-work with Ferns. 

20. Redwood and Viburnum 

4. Rpck-work with Ferns. 


5. Acer Schwedleri. 

21. Orange. 

6. Acer Schwedleri. 

22. Border for Vegetables. 

7. Rhododendron. 

23. Fig. 

8. Large Palm. 

24. Peach. 

9. Rhododendron and Azalea. 

25. Plum. 

10. Rhododendron Catawbiense, 

26. Apricot. 

Camellia and Aucuba Ja- 

27. Apricot. 


28. Peach. 

II. Maple. 

29. Plum. 

12. Linden. 

30. Cherry. 

13. Eucalyptus ficifolia and Nerium 

31. Cherry. 


32. Pear. 

14. Escallonia and Buxus semper- 

S^. Apple. 


34. Nectarine. 

15. Escallonia. 

35- Pear. 

16. Orange. 

36. Apple. 

17. Lemon. 

37. Pear. 



For Ten Acre Tract — Continued. 


38. Apricot. 

39. Acacia latifolia. 

40. Acer campestre and Acacia flori- 


41. Grevillea robusta. 

42. Maple. 

43. Linden and Coprosma Bauer- 


44. Coprosma Baueriana. 

45. Corynecarpus tevigatus. 

46. Araucaria imbricata and 


47. Cryptomeria Japonica and 

Cryptomeria elegans. 

48. Sequoia gigantea and Habro- 


49. Pinus, Liquidambar, Erica per- 

soluta alba and Abelia rupes- 

50. Pinus, Liriodendron tulipifera, 

Erica and Honeysuckle. 

51. Pepper. 

52. Camphor and Choisya ternata. 

53. Phoenix Canadensis. 

54. Hymenosporum flavum and 


55. Acacia moUissima, Pittosporum 

eugenioides and Romneya 

56. Robinia Bessoniana, Myrtle and 

Laurus Tinus. 

57. Abies and Thuyopsis dolabrata. 

58. Prunus Pissardii and Prunus 


59. Araucaria excelsa and Retino- 

spora obtusa. 


60. Picea pungens (Blue Spruce). 

61. Escallonia rubra. 

62. Albizzia Julibrissin and Quercus 


63. Libocedrus decurrens, Acacia 

armata and Azara macro- 

64. Taxus baccata aurea. 

65. Weeping Japanese Cherry. 

66. Bamboo. 

67. Weeping Birch and Spiraea. 

68. Redwood. 

69. Callistemon. 

0. Bamboo. 

1. Salisburia adiantifolia Ginkgo 
and Pittosporum eugenioides. 

2. Pittosporum eugenioides and 
Diervilla rosea. 

3. Magnolia and Pittosporum un- 

4. Ligustrum ibota, Euonymus 
aurea and Horse-chestnut. 

5. Cedrus Deodora, Cedrus At- 
lantica and Veronica. 

6. Cedrus Deodora, Cedrus At- 
lantica and Veronica. 

7. Lawson Cypress, Veronica de- 
cussata and Polygala Dal- 

8. Large Palm. 

9. Cypress hedge. 

80. Populus pyramidalis and Popu- 
lus carolinensis. 

81. Espalier for fruit. 

82. Leptospermum. 

83. Bamboo hedge. 



For Ten Acre Tract — Continued. 


A. A summer house of stone or 

wood, rustic in design. 

B. Six-foot walk. 

C. Six-foot walk through Rhodo- 


D. Eight-foot border in grass. 

E. Niche for statuary or sun dial. 

F. Low formal basin. 

G. Six-foot walk. 

H. Formal flower-beds. 

I. Space for house-site, one hun- 
dred and twenty by one hun- 
dred feet. 

J. Site for garage or stable. 

K. Ten-foot walk leading from house 
to vegetable garden, covered 
by an arbor and shaded by 
grape vines and Wistaria. 

L. Range of glass houses. 

M. Eighteen-inch walk between the 
vegetable beds. 

N. Vegetable beds. 

O. Three-foot walk through vege- 
table garden. 

P. Squares for vegetables. 

Q. One of the four squares sur- 



rounded by fruit trees, the 
inside of each to be treated as 
O and P. Outside of the line 
of fruit trees, cut flowers for 
the house may be grown. 

R. An espalier for trained fruit 
trees, showing an eighteen- 
inch walk, two feet from the 

S. Eighteen-inch alleyway for the 
use of the gardener in working 
on the espalier. 

T. Twenty-five foot border sur- 
rounding the vegetable gar- 
den, to be used for small vege- 

U. Fifteen-foot road. 

V. Hexagonal summer house of rus- 
tic design, of either stone or 
wood and encircled by a small 

W. Four-foot walk, girdling lake. 

X. Small lake from two to three 
feet in depth. 

Y. A formal gateway. 

NOTE. — All walks in the vegetable garden are to be edged with dwarf box. 





FTER the house-site has been selected and the 
outlines of the drive and walks have been staked, 
the next operation should be grading and prepar- 
ing the ground for planting. When grading or 
leveling, it is necessary to remember to always 
keep the good or surface soil at the top and not to bury it as is 
too often done by contractors. 

When the ground is graded and shaped to the lines as planned, 
it should then be plowed or trenched. Where the grounds are 
large, use the ordinary plow followed by the subsoil-plow; stir 
the subsoil, if possible, twenty-four inches deep. After plowing, 
follow with a heavy harrow, selecting dry weather and only when 
the soil is reasonably dry and not wet enough to stick to the 
shoes or clog the harrow- teeth ; then cross-plow and reharrow. 

Should the ground be too small for plowing, trenching with 
the spade must be resorted to ; and here again it is important to 
bear in mind to keep the top soil for the upper layer. 

Trenching should be done by first removing, at one end of the 
ground, the top soil, to the depth of one foot, from a strip (three 
feet wide) across the entire width of the ground, and wheeling 
that top soil to the opposite end of the ground which is being 
trenched. Then, with a heavy pick, stir the subsoil to an addi- 
tional foot in depth, leaving the loosened subsoil in its original 
place. On top of the loosened subsoil spread a layer of manure 
about four inches deep. Measure from the line of the first trench, 
with a yardstick, three feet at each end of the trench (that is, at 
each side of the ground), and place stakes, to which stakes attach 
a line, which line will thus run across the ground at a distance of 



three feet from the line of the first trench. Remove the top soil 
to the depth of one foot from this strip, and place that top soil to 
the depth of one foot above the manure in Trench No. i. Stir sub- 
soil of Trench No. 2, and, on top of that, place a layer of manure, 
as instructed for Trench No. i. Then establish the line for 
Trench No. 3, in the same manner as for Trench No. 2, with the 
top soil of which (Trench No. 3) Trench No. 2 will be com- 
pleted, and so on trench after trench all over the ground, the sur- 
face soil taken from the first opening, which had been wheeled to 
the far end of the ground, being found sufiicient in quantity for 
filling on top of the manure of the last trench, thus leaving the 
ground level or even, and in the same shape as it was before the 
work of trenching began. 

Should the natural soil be composed of stiff clay, a layer of 
light sandy soil or pure sand, or a heavy application of half- 
decomposed stable-manure mixed freely with the soil, or, more 
especially, a compost made of all three will greatly improve it. 

Where the soil is of an adhesive nature, or the subsoil within 
three feet of the surface is of stiff clay, drainage should be re- 
sorted to, as, no matter how well the soil may be cultivated 
or how heavily it may be manured, good results will be impos- 
sible if the soil is water-logged. Drains should be put in about 
fifteen feet apart and three feet deep with a fall of not less than 
six inches in one hundred feet. Of course where water passes 
freely through the soil and does not lie stagnant in the subsoil^ 
the putting in of drains will be imnecessary. This may be readily 
found out by digging a hole with the spade after heavy rains and 
observing whether the hole holds water any length of time. 
Should the water percolate freely through the soil, no draining 
will be required, but should the water remain in the hole for 
weeks, it would be well to have the ground thoroughly drained 
as directed. Tile draining is much the best and most lasting 
method, but, when tiles cannot be had, a foot of rough rock placed 
in the bottom of the ditch (putting the larger stones in the bot- 



torn and finishing with the smaller ones, covering the whole with 
sods or long straw to keep the soil from choking the crevices) will 
answer the purpose very well although not so lasting as the tile. 

It may be stated that where there is too much water lying 
stagnant in the soil, few plants will thrive, for, as soon as the 
roots of the trees or other plants reach the stagnant saturated 
soil, they invariably show it by their upper twigs or leaves dying 
oiBF and by their eventually dying altogether. 

Drain ditches should be dug just wide enough for a man to 
work them out. If the top soil is loose, it should be given enough 
slope to prevent the soil from crumbling into the drain when the 
tile is being laid. If the soil is heavy and solid, twenty-four 
inches wide at the surface of the groimd will be ample width, 
tapering to the size of the tile at the bottom, so that the pipes 
may bed in the solid ground accurately. 

Pipe tiles are made of round shape and should be furnished 
with collars as these tend to keep the tiles from shifting and also 
prevent, to a large extent, roots from entering and interrupting 
the flow of water. After hying them, cover the tiles with fine 
crushed rock or gravel to keep the soil from entering the drains. 

Where the groimd is undulating in its character, a main 
drain should be laid along the lowest portion of the ground, and 
lateral drains laid obliquely according to the shape of the ground, 
each entering the main drain by a Y or T shaped fitting, care 
being taken that each drain has a fall of at least six inches in one 
hundred feet as formerly recommended. 

In digging the ditches for the drains, place the top soil on 
one side and the bottom soil on the opposite side so that, when 
filling in the ditches, the subsoil may be replaced and the surface 
soil saved for the top where it is most needed. 





N THE chapter on the "Preparation of the Ground" 
it was advised that, after the land had been 
plowed, the subsoil plow should be used, and the 
ground thoroughly harrowed, then cross-plowed and 
again harrowed. Finally it may be rolled with a 
two-horse roller so as to break up the lumps of earth and 
leave the surface reasonably even and smooth. It has also been 
advised that, in order to show the proposed lines of the drive- 
ways and walks, a center line of stakes should be set according to 
the adopted plan, and at the same time it was urged that the lines 
of these driveways and walks should be most carefully studied 
from all points until it was felt that they were the best possible. 
Assuming then that these preliminary points have all been 
attended to, the next step toward the construction of roads and 
walks is to have two lines of stakes set equally distant from the 
center line showing the width of the proposed walk or drive- 
way. If for a driveway, these stakes should be set not less than 
eight feet from the center line of stakes, and thus sixteen feet 
apart from each other, as a driveway with a width of less than 
sixteen feet would be too narrow for two carriages to pass com- 
fortably, and, besides, would give the grounds a pinched con- 
tracted appearance. 

If the stakes are being set for a foot-path, they should be 
set four feet from the center stakes, and thus eight feet apart 
from each other. A foot-path eight feet wide has enough width 
and looks well in the grounds. 

As formerly suggested, it is again urged that all the good 
surface soil should be removed from the proposed road-bed 



(whether of driveway, walk, or any other contemplated gravel 
surface) and spread over those parts of the grounds where the 
natural soil is poor and shallow, or, if not required for that pur- 
pose, in any low spots which may need leveling up. 

When this is done, the center line, as well as the side Unes of 
stakes, should be carefully reset about every fifteen feet along 
the proposed roadway. Then three lines of levels must be run 
along the road-bed, one in the middle and one on each side. The 

Walk with Rustic Benches. Background of Pines and Firs. 



cuts and fills must now be figured out, and the grade established, 
the quantities of soil to be moved being carefully figured so 
that the cuts and fills will balance each other, always keeping 
in view the economy of having the dirt moved as short a distance 
as possible. 

After this is all calculated, it is time to have the grade-stakes 
set, one at the base of each of the line-stakes. 

When setting the border grade-stakes, it must be seen that 
the stakes, on opposite sides of the road to be graded, are set 
exactly level with each other, for unless the two borders of the 
roadway or foot-path are level, not only does the road never 
look well, but it is not comfortable to walk or drive over. As 
the grade-stakes will be set alongside the line-stakes, they also 
will be at intervals of fifteen feet on the roadway, it being inad- 
visable to have them further away from each other. These grade- 
stakes should have sawed, square ends not less than one inch square. 

After the border grade-stakes have been put in place, still 
another line of grade-stakes should be set, at equal distances 
apart, along the line of the road-bed, to guide the workmen in 
the grading of the surface. These grade-stakes should be set 
so as to give the road-bed a crown of one in sixty; for example, 
if the roadway is sixteen feet wide, it should be about three and 
one-half inches higher in the middle than at the sides, so that 
the rains will run off the middle of the road toward the sides, 
leaving the center of the roadway dry. Great care must be taken 
in this part of the work, as a road or walk has not a good appear- 
ance when there is too great a rise in the middle, and that such a 
road or walk is inconvenient and almost unpleasant for walking 
or driving over, will be evident. In staking the rise, the width 
of the road must always be taken into consideration, otherwise 
great mistakes may be made, and a walk which is eight feet 
wide should have no more than the proportion just mentioned, 
which would be a rise of one and three-quarter inches from the 
sides to the middle. 



Fonnal Gardening. Walki Convcrgrng to Fountain. BBdcffmiiid Heavily Wooded. 

At each of the grade-stakes, stout witness-stakes should be 
set, close against each grade-stake, and projecting about two 
feet higher, so that in the event of the grade-stakes being covered 
over with dirt, they may always be located by the witness-stakes, 
and thus the work will not be delayed through a surveyor having 
to be found to locate the lines or the grades. 

For a driveway, the border grade-stakes should be set eight 
inches above the proposed finished gravel surface, thereby giving 
room for five inches of crushed rock and one inch of fine finishing 
rock, and thus leaving the border of soil about two inches above 
the finished rolled surface of the roadway. 

For a walk, the same course in grading should be pursued, 
only in this case the border should be graded six inches above the 
grade of the walk instead of eight inches as recommended for the 



driveway. This would give four inches for the depth of rock, 
that depth being sufficient for a foot-path. 

When these stakes for the driveway have all been set, the 
roadway can now be leveled to the required grade, namely, eight 
inches below the top of the established border grade-stakes, and 
six Inches below the top of the road-bed grade-stakes. 

Of course, some portions of the natural grade will be found 
to be above and other portions below the proposed grade of the 
driveway, but, all this having been carefully planned out as 
suggested earlier in this chapter, the portions of the roadway 
which are too high will now be moved to fill up to grade where 
the ground is too low. This part of the work is very easily 
carried out when it has previously been carefully planned and 
has also been surveyed and staked, so that the workmen will 
know both how deep to cut and to what grade they are to fill in. 

Various materials may be used for the bottoming of roads 
and walks, such as stone, brickbats, clinkers, or, in short, any 
hard substance which contains nothing that would injure the 
roots of the plants. It is important to keep this in view, as plants 
situated near the border of a road quite frequently send their 
roots imder the road-bed, and, if material injurious to plants were 
used, the plants could not fail to suffer. Each neighborhood 
generally has some local quarry which contains rock quite good 
enough for forming roads or walks for a pleasure-garden and 
grounds. Crushed rock of a brown color has a much better 
color effect, as contrasted with the green of lawns or shrubbery, 
than rock which is of a gray or white shade. 

Before commencing to haul the rock for bottoming the road- 
bed, it should be seen that the road-bed is well shaped, evenly 
crowned, and rolled hard, for unless the road-bed is properly 
shaped before the rock is spread, it is almost impossible to get a 
good road, because the foundation rock would necessarily be of 
uneven depth and could not be evenly rolled. Besides, leaving 
the road-bed uneven would be the cause of greater expense, as 



Driveway showing California Laurel (to the left of Illustration) and Oaks ; 
also Ivy-Covered Stump. 

the road would, in that case, have to be evened up by rock, and, 
as the expense of hauling rock is very considerable on account 
of it generally having to be brought from some distance, it would 
be much more exp)ensive to fill up a road-bed in this way than by 
grading it with dirt from the grounds. 

The road-bed then being in shape and rolled smooth and hard, 
the work of setting the bottom rock should be commenced. Any 
kind of rock will be found good enough for the foundation layer 
of the drivew^ay, provided it is not over two inches or two inches 
and a half in diameter, A mixture of all sizes up to six or eight 
inches in diameter does not make a good roadway, for it cannot 
be rolled evenly, nor does it form a close finish, as it leaves large 
open spaces and hard unevennesses. This bottom layer should 
be evenly spread about five inches deep. After the rolling is 



all done, the surface should be gone over with a shovel, and 
any ruts or chuck-holes which may have been left by the wagon 
wheels should be filled in, the object being to leave the whole 
surface as even as possible. It should then be rolled with a heavy 
roller at least three times, or until perfectly smooth. There must 
then be a layer of finishing rock or gravel which will pass through 
a half-inch mesh, spread evenly over the entire surface about 
one inch deqi and rolled into proper condition. 

This finishing coat, as a rule, is not put on until all the heavy 
work on the roads (such as hauling material for buildings and 
planting the grounds) has been completed. 

Walk Lined with Dracaenas. 





[HEN the ground has been got ready for the reception 
of plants m accordance with the suggestions made 
in Chapter III, the next operation is the planting 
of the trees and shrubs according to the plan which 
it has been strongly advised should be carefully 
prepared in full detail before the actual work of planting is 

It will be remembered that if the place is large, the ground 
should have been plowed, and the subsoil plowed, cross-plowed 
and harrowed, or, if the place is too small for plowing, that the 
ground should have been trenched and then raked to an even 

The soil then having been thoroughly cultivated and being 
in good condition to be worked (that is, neither so wet that it 
will stick to the spade or trowel when being dug up or to the 
feet when treading it, nor, on the other hand, too dry and hard), 
mild weather with a moist atmosphere must be selected for the 
time of planting. If the air is very dry and a harsh wind blowing, 
the work must be postponed until the dry spell is over, as a 
plant transplanted under these conditions is apt to suffer. If, 
however, the transplanting has to be done in very dry weather, 
shading must be resorted to until the plants make fresh roots. 
This is more necessary in the case of evergreens than of plants 
which are without leaves, for the reason that in those plants 
having leaves, the surface from which evaporation takes place 
is much larger (being at least six times greater) than in similarly 
sized plants not having leaves. 

Deciduous trees may be safely transplanted in any month 



between the fall of the leaf in Autumn and the swelling of the 
bud in Spring, provided, of course, the soil is in good condition. 

Our hardy, native Pine and Cypress do well if transplanted 
in November, December, January or February. 

Eucalyptus, Acacia, and most of our New Holland, Aus- 
tralian and New Zealand plants do best if the planting or trans- 
planting is delayed until Spring, or until the danger from heavy 
rains and cold weather has passed. 

The operation of planting varies according to the nature of 
the plant and the natural disposition of the soil. Some plants 
root deeply, sending strong taps into the soil, while the roots of 
others creep along close to the surface. It must be carefully 
kept in view, when planting, that the roots should be placed as 
nearly as possible in the same position as they were before they 
were removed from their previous location. . 

In transplanting deciduous trees, they should be taken up 
very carefully so as to preserve as many of the roots as possible, 
the constant aim being to prevent injury not only to the roots, 
but also to the branches so that they may have few wounds and 
bruises to heal when in their new quarters. 

After the ground has been prepared carefully in accordance 
with the former suggestions, the hole must be dug for the recep- 
tion of the roots of the plant to be transplanted. The size of the 
hole, of course, depends upon the size of the plant, but it is 
better to make it too large than too small. If it is made too 
small the roots are very liable to get cramped and crowded into 
wrong positions. The hole should be large enough to allow all 
of the roots to be spread out to their full length and in their 
natural positions; the depth of the hole should permit the neck 
of the plant to be as near the surface of the ground as it was 

There is a difference of opinion as to whether the hole should 
be circular or square. The square form should by all means be 
preferred, not only because it is dug more quickly, but also for 




another reason of greater importance: — ^when the roots, in their 
natural extension by growth, reach the wall of a circular hole, 
they are in danger of following the line of the circular wall and 
thus confining themselves into a space the size of the original 
circular hole, instead of extending into the wall and thus into 
the adjoining soil as they will certainly do when the hole is a 
square one. 

When digging the hole, the best soil should be placed on one 
side, and the poorer soil on the opposite side. The hole should 
be made quite as wide at the bottom as at the top and should be 
deeper at the sides than in the middle, and thus the surplus 
water will nm to the sides of the basin rather than lodge in the 

After the hole has been got ready, the plant should be ex- 
amined. If the top is not uniform and equally balanced, it must 
be pnmed into uniform proportion. It must then be carefully 
seen that the roots are not matted or crowded. If the roots are 
found to be matted or crowded they must be disentangled and 
cut back to sound wood, and, if any of them are bruised, these 
should be cut back with a sharp knife. The roots should then 
be placed in the prepared spot to find out whether the hole is of 
the proper depth. It may be found that the neck of the plant is 
too high or too low, and the hole must be lowered or filled in, as 
may be necessary, to remedy this, it being always borne in mind 
that the bottom of the hole on which the roots are to rest should 
be of convex form, not only for the reason just mentioned re- 
garding the drainage of the water, but so that the roots will 
point in a downward direction as in their natural state, rather 
than in an upward direction as too often happens from neglect 
of this precaution. The roots should also be as equally dis- 
tributed over the surface of the bottom of the hole as possible, 
or as nearly so as they were before transplanting, and as their 
nature will permit. 

A light spreading of fine, well-pulverized soil should then 



be spread over the roots to the depth of about two mches, the 
soil being thrown from the stem of the plant toward the ends of 
the roots. This is of considerable importance, as the throwing 
of the soil from the ends of the roots toward the stem has a 
tendency to double up the roots, not only thereby injuring them 
by twisting, but, when they start into growth, causing them to 
grow toward the stem and to crowd into bunches and mat 
around the stem, instead of starting away from the stem in 
search of fresh soil, as they would do under natural circumstances. 

When the roots are covered with two inches of soil, it is 
necessary to shake the stem a little so as to get all the soil settled 
among the roots. Then the hole should be filled in, to within 
three inches of the top, and should be given a good soaking of 
water. The hole should be filled with water two or three times, 
this being allowed to entirely soak away; when the hole is partly 
dry, it should be filled up to the top with soil. 

Should the tree, which is being planted, be over four feet 
in height, it would be well to stake it with a stout pole, the tree 
being tied securely to the pole to prevent the action of the wind 
from moving the tree before it has made fresh roots. 

In the case of a large deciduous tree, the stake should be 
driven into the bottom of the hole before planting, and the 
roots spread about the stake, for, if the stake should be driven 
into the ground after the tree is set out and the hole filled in, 
the driving in of the stake would very likely injure and disturb 
the roots. 

If a stake should be required for an evergreen plant, it should 
be driven obHquely into the side of the hole and clear of the 
roots, and, of course, the plant should be tied securely to the 

In staking or supporting a newly planted tree or shrub, great 
care must be taken to prevent the bark from being injured through 
rubbing against the stake. In order to prevent this, a padding 
•of old rubber or a wisp of straw, or some other soft material, 



should be placed between the stake and the stem of the tree. A 
plant, which has been staked, should be examined about once 
a month to see that the tie is not cutting into the bark by the 
natural swelling of the stem, or that the padding has not been 
forced out of position, thus allowing the bark to rub against the 
stake by the action of the wind. 

After the planting and staking is all completed, it is a good 
plan to mulch the ground with horse-manure half-rotted, spread 
to a depth of about three inches. Mulching is a good means of 
preserving the moisture and keeping the soil at an even tempera- 
ture. It also prevents the soil from cracking, and proves beneficial 
through its substance being washed into the soil by rains or 
artificial watering. 

When it is desired to move large trees and shrubs for trans- 
planting, the following method is recommended as one which 
has been thoroughly tried and proved to be effective. 

In April or May a year before the tree or shrub is to be moved, 
dig, around it, a trench deep enough to reach the main side-roots^ 
cut all the side roots with a sharp knife; encase the ball of earth 
surrounding the tree roots with boards of sufficient strength, 
care being taken that there be a space of three inches clear be- 
tween the ball of earth and the boards. Fill this three-inch 
space with good friable sandy loam mixed with leaf-mold (in 
the proportions of two parts loam and one part leaf-mold) 
tamping the soil firmly with a piece of stick about eighteen inches 
long by one inch by two inches; then fill in the soil about the 
encasement and give a good watering. 

The following year, when the plant will be ready for removal, 
dig around the encasement and excavate under the tree or shrub, 
cutting the tap roots and bottoming the box with boards of suffic- 
ient strength. If the tree or shrub is more than ten feet in height, 
nail a board to each comer of the box, these boards to be the 
height of the tree and braced by strips nailed to each. After the 
boards are in place and properly braced, tie the stem of the tree 



to each of the four upright boards so that there will be no risk of 
the stem moving either at the root or at the top; then raise the 
box containing the tree or shrub by hydraulic pump jacks or by 
other raising apparatus and load it on a truck to be moved to the 
place selected. 

Before moving the tree or shrub have the selected site prop- 
erly graded. Dig a hole of the proper depth and at least six feet 
wider than the ball of the tree to be transplanted, having a suflBc- 
ient quantity of good soil ready to fill the hole; lower the tree into 
the hole, taking oS the boards; fill in with the good soil, tamping 
it firmly; for every three inches of fill give a good watering. See 
that the tree or shrub is stoutly staked, or, if very tall, braced 
with four guy ropes equally distanced. Attach the guy ropes to 
stakes driven into the ground at a distance from the^tree equal 
to its height. 

Lavm Outline. Eocalyptut and Conifers. 




,N PREPARING the part of the site which it has been 
decided shall be laid out in Lawn, it is of great im- 
portance, and will prove to be true economy, to see 
that the preliminary work is done with the utmost 
carefulness, for if proper care is taken at this 
stage, there will not be the annoyance, the loss of time and 
the expense of having to dig up the lawn and practically do the 
work over again, which so often has been experienced by owners 
of homes where the lawns were made by men who either were 
careless or did not thoroughly understand what was necessary 
to be done. 

As this preliminary work varies to a certain extent according 
to the class of soil, it will be well in this chapter on Lawn-making 
to refer to the four most usual classes of soil met with, namely, 
clay, brown loam, black dobe and light sandy soil. 

When the soil is clay, it is necessary that it be trenched 
at least two feet deep. If the work is done in the Summer sea- 
son, the soil should be turned up and left in rough condition 
as long as possible — say about six weeks — ^until it gets thor- 
oughly dry and warmed by the sun. It then must be generously 
manured (the best for this purpose being light stable-manure 
well-rotted), this manure to be spaded in one spade deep, care 
being taken that the soil is thoroughly pulverized and broken 
as the work goes along. It should then be shaped and graded and 
raked smooth, rolled with a light roller and then raked again, 
the lawn being now ready for the seed, but it is strongly advised 
that, before the grass seed is sown, the first crop of weeds should 
be allowed to germinate, and that then the ground be gone over 



with a light scuffle hoe which will kill all the weeds if the hoe- 
ing is done in dry weather. Taking this extra precaution will 
save the grass from afterwards ha\dng to struggle for existence 
with the weeds. This hoeing will leave the ground too rough 
for seed, so it must be raked again before sowing. 

The grass which makes the best lawn, and the lawn most 
easily kept in satisfactory condition, is Kentucky Blue Grass. 
The mixing of clover or any other grass seed with Kentucky Blue 
Grass seed is not reconunended. When purchasing the seed, 
see that it is perfectly clean and fresh, the quantity required 
being about half a pound of seed to one hundred and fifty square 
feet of lawn. It must be sown as evenly as possible, a time for 
sowing being selected when there is absolutely no wind; as the 
seed is very light too much stress cannot be laid upon this point. 
Inunediately after sowing, the ground must be raked very lightly 
with an iron rake. The raking must be done lightly, as none 
of the seed must be moved or dragged into bunches, the object of 
this raking being to cover the seed not more than a quarter of 
an inch, and to have it as evenly distributed as can be managed. 
When doing this, the one who rakes must have two wide boards 
to stand upon and walk over, so that his feet will not mark or 
indent the surface of the soil, as such indentations, of course, 
would make an uneven lawn. If this Kentucky Blue Grass seed 
can be successfully sown, it makes the best lawn, the closest 
turf, and the most velvety surface, and is well worth the extra 
preliminary trouble. The other strong grass seeds, as the English 
Rye and the Orchard, are apt to run into bunches and tufts. 

It is well to remember that the results from the Kentucky 
Blue Grass seed are considerably slower than from the coarser 
grasses. With this grass it takes about three months to form a 
turf when the seed is sown in the best season, which, in the 
middle and northern counties of California, is during April and 
May, or immediately after the cold rains are past. In the Southern 
and frostless regions this grass may be sown earlier in the year. 

1 56] 


No water should be applied to the lawn until the seed has 
been in the ground at least two days. Then the ground should 
be given a thorough soaking and should be kept continually 
moist (by watering once daily during dry weather, the evening 
being the best time for this watering) until the young growth 
is at least one inch high when three waterings per week should 
be enough. 

When the young grass is about one inch high, the lawn 
should be gone over again with a light roller, the one who does 
the rolling being careful to use two boards similarly to when 
raking as suggested above, these two boards being necessary for 
the same reason, namely, to avoid indenting the lawn by boot 
marks. After this, all that is required is to water when dry, and 
mow as often as is necessary, which in ordinary circumstances is 
about once a week. 

Should a rougher lawn than this be required, or, in the Win- 
ter months should a lawn effect be desired more quickly than 

Lawn with Tree Croups. 


can be secured from Kentucky Blue Grass, English or Australian 
Rye Grass will give a good lawn effect during that part of the 
year. Treat the ground as recommended above for Kentucky 
Blue Grass. Sow the Rye Grass seed (not mixed with any other 
seed) thickly, and rake in a httle deeper than the other, say 
from three-eighths to one-half an inch in depth, otherwise care- 
fully keeping in view the same suggestions regarding sowing, 
watering, etc., as for Kentucky Blue Grass. 

In some instances Bermuda Qrass has been used for lawns, 
but on account of its dry, dead effect during Winter, and the 
fact that it is difficult to eradicate, it is not considered suitable 
for a good lawn, and is certainly not to be compared with the 
others in any way. 

With reference to what is said in this chapter as to the in- 
advisabiUty of mixing Clover or anything else with Blue or 
Rye Grass, and as to the results obtained from these grasses, it 
should be mentioned that experiments have been made with 
Lippia reptans, which is a dwarf creeping-plant with a small 
oval leaf and a purple flower. This has been tried and even 
recommended as a substitute for grass. These experiments have 
not been successful, and, as the prevailing color effect is a purplish 
gray, it lacks the refreshing green effect of a good grass lawn. 

With regard to Clover, which is of a strong growth, it re- 
quires more water than grass and spreads so as to kill the grass. 
One great objection to Clover is the stubby effect when newly 
cut, and as a good lawn should be cut about once a week, this 
is of great importance. There are many other grasses which 
might be sown, but they are either too fine or too coarse for 
practical lawn purposes. 

In young lawns, notwithstanding the killing of the first crop 
of weeds, as explained in the early part of this chapter, it is to 
be expected that many weeds will germinate and grow with the 
grass, but these must be weeded out as soon as they are large 
enough to be pulled up, especially those weeds which have per- 



ennial roots such as the Thistle, the Dock and the Dandelion. 
On no account should the Dandelion be allowed to seed. It 
must be eradicated at once, because if only one flower-stalk or 
head is allowed to ripen its seeds, it will completely ruin a lawn 
in a short period. There are myriads of seeds in one of these 
flower-tops, and when they are allowed to spread they spring up 
in a few days and do an immense amount of damage. 

When the soil is of brown loam or black dobe, the treat- 
ment above suggested applies equally well, but it must be kept 
in view that should the soil be brown friable loam naturally 
well drained, all that is necessary at the beginning is to grade 
the ground in the shape desired, and, instead of, as in the case 
of clay soil, trenching two feet deep, digging one foot or one 
spade in depth will be enough. The applying of manure and 
the rest of the work should be done as advised in the case of 
clay soil. 

If the natural soil of the site, where the lawn is to be, is poor 
sand, this sand must be removed to the depth of at least one foot 
and replaced with good loam. The loam should then be manured 
and the rest of the work done exactly in the same way as recom- 
mended for the other soils. 





■ HE Abelia rs one of our most free- flowering shrubs, 
3 being in flower nearly every month of the year. 
J It is neat and compact in its habit of growth and 
2 is excellent for finishing groups of stronger- 
growing shrubs. 

The flowers of the Abelia, 
which are lilac or pink and bell- 
shaped, are sweet-scented and 

There are four varieties of 

the shrub, Abelia rupestris and 

Abelia serrata (natives of China) , 

Abelia floribunda (a native of 

Mexico) and Abelia triflora (a 

native of India). They flourish 

in any good garden soil and in 

any situation which is not too 

much exposed. 

Abdia nipestris. Xhe Abelia rupestris, grouped 

with Veronica decussata, Maytenus boaria or Leptospermum 

Iffivigatum makes a very effective combination, all of these being 

of similar habit. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in sandy leaf-mold in a cold 
frame during September or October. When rooted, they should 
be placed in three-inch pots and given root-room as required. 


Abies Mertensiana. 


Abies {Fir) 

A genus of about twenty-five species, all giving a grand effect 
in the landscape, whether in group form or singly in the park or 
lawn. Most of the species are lofty 
conifers, massive, s3Tnmetri€al and 
handsome, many of them with the 
under side of the leaves of a silvery 
white. All are hardy and delight in a 
cool moist atmosphere and a well- 
drained soil. 

A number of die finest of the 
species are indigenous to California, 
Abies amabilis, Abies grandis, Abies 
Douglasii, Abies bracteata and 
Abies Mertensiana preferring the 
cool coast counties, while our other 
indigenous species, including Abies Abies Morinda. 

nobilis, Abies magnifica, Abies Pattoniana, Abies concolor, etc., 
seem to prefer the high valleys and ridges of the Sierras. --Ttlany of 
the exotic species, such as Abies Nordmannia from the Crimea, 
Abies pectinata from Central Europe, Abies cephalonica from 
Greece, and all of the Asiatic species, such as Abies Morinda, 
seem to be at home with our natives, and, when growing side 
by side, with the same exposure and treatment, do equally welL^ 
The Eastern species, including the beautiful Abies balsamea, 
seem also to thrive, especially when given a sheltered half-shady 

Propagate by seeds sown, in February, one-eighth of an inch 
deep, in a cool frame; give them plenty of air and protect them 
from small birds until they are three inches high when they 
should be pricked off, two inches apart, into boxes, left there one 
year, and then transplanted into nursery rows. 



Abutilon {Bell-flower) 

A class of shrubs noted for their free-flowering and showy- 
appearance, belonging to the mallow family. Few excel them 
as ornamental flowering shrubs 
for decorating the shrubberj', 
especially if they are given a 
sheltered situation on a sloping 
bank where the flowers may be 
viewed from below. They thrive 
well in any good garden soil 
with ordinary treatment. 

There are many varieties, 
including Abutilon admiration, 
Abutilon fire king, Abutilon pur- 
purea, Abutilon Boule de Niege, 
etc., besides many variegated 
Abutilon. forms, all worthy of cultivation. 

Propagate by cuttings inserted, in pots or boxes, in soil com- 
posed of half sand half well-decomposed leaf-mold, in Jxily or 
August. Place them in a cold frame and shade them for a few 


A genus of highly ornamental and decorative shrubs or trees, 
natives of New Holland, South America and North Africa. 
Most of the evergreen species came originally from Australia 
and are among our special favorites. All are vigorous growers 
and abundant bloomers. If carefully selected, they may be had 
in bloom every month of the year, beginning with Acacia longi- 
folia, which flowers in January, followed closely by the beauti- 
ful fem-leaved Acacia mollissima, with its great masses of sul- 
phur-yellow racemes on a tree from forty to sixty feet in height, 
with a spread of branch as much in diameter. This stands with- 
out a rival as a flowering tree in our early Spring months. 



The Acacia is a very extensive genus, the number of species 

being nearly four hundred. Over one hundred species have been 

introduced into California and ahnost 

all of them have proved to be perfectly 

hardy, growing freely in any soil and 

standing exposure to our harshest winds, 

while one, at least, rivals our hardiest 

trees in standing salt winds, growing 

almost within touch of salt spray on the 

poorest land. 

Among the best of the shrubby 

species are Acacia armata, Acacia cul- 

triformis, Acacia Baileyana, Acacia flori- 

bunda, Acacia lineata, Acacia longifolia, 

Acacia Riceana, etc., and of those which 

assume tree form, Acacia dealbata, AcacU annau. 

Acacia decurrens, Acacia mollissima, Acacia melanoxylon and 

Acacia lophanta. 

Acacia Baileyana, one of the earliest to bloom, opens its 

great bundles of yellow flowers early in January. Its silvery 
fem-Iifee foliage, blending 
with its beautiful flowers, 
makes it a charming object 
in garden or shrubbery. 
It grows to the height of 
thirty feet. Acacia mol- 
lissima blooming in Feb- 
ruary, Acacia pycnantha 
flowering in early Sum- 
mer, Acacia cultriformis 
a little later and Acacia 
Acada lophanta. calamifolia in late FaU, 

make a continuous season of bloom throughout the year. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-eighth of an inch deep in a 

[6s I 


cold frame or greenhouse in March; prick them out into pots or 

boxes when they are three inches high and plant them out in 
permanent quarters the following Spring. 

Acer {Maple) 

A genus of highly ornamental, hardy, deciduous trees or 
shrubs greatly valued for the effect produced either when planted 
in group-form in our large grounds or when growing as single 
trees on the margins of lawns or again as sidewalk trees on 
sheltered streets. The Maple loves a sheltered situation in a soft 
moist soil, and plenty of water at the root during the growing 

Acer negundo stands exposure better than any other species, 
and, in good soil, makes a fine shade tree even when given con- 
siderable exposure. Acer macrophyllum, our native species, 
becomes a handsome tree of large proportions with a stately 
stem often three feet or more in diameter and branches to the 
height of twenty feet, its spread of limbs shading an area from 
seventy-five to one hundred feet across. 

Acer campestre, the English Maple, is a small tree with small 
cordate leaves. 

Acer Japoniciun, the Japanese Maple, and its varieties make 
an effective shrubbery group, their deeply cut, variously tinted 
leaves being very beautiful. 

Acer saccharinum, the Sugar Maple, is one of the very best 
of our deciduous trees. Where given good soil and a situation 
not too greatly exposed it makes a fine tree either for the side- 
walk or as a single specimen on the lawn. 

Acer Schwedleri gives beautiful color effects in early Spring 
and also in the Fall. 

Our native Acer circinatum, the dwarf species of Acer Japoni- 
cimi and its varieties, and the many varieties of Acer palmatum 



make beautiful shrubs early in Spring when the young leaves 
first open, and again in the Fall when they take on their Autumn 
tints of red and yellow. 

Propagate by seeds sown, as soon as ripe in Autumn, in the 
open ground, covering the seeds about one-quarter of an inch deep. 
The rarer varieties and the variegated forms are propagated by 
grafting in Spring or by budding in Sununer on the common 

AcHANiA {Turk's Cap) 

The Turk's Cap (named from its scariet cap-like flower) is a 
very pretty evergreen flowering 
shrub with heart-shai)ed leaves 
of pale-green, belonging to the 
genus Malvaceje. It requires a 
sheltered situation and partial 
shade (such as under the 
branches of a deciduous tree 
away from strong simshine and 
protected from frost) and grows 
freely in any good soil not too 

Propagate by placing cut- 
tings of half-ripe wood in sandy 

soU in a cool frame in September AA«rti MaNavteois. 

and shading them from sunshine until rooted; when rooted, pot 
them singly in three-inch pots and plant them out the following 

jEscuLUS {Horse-cheslnut) 

A well-known hardy ornamental deciduous tree with showy 
flowers and compound leaves, well adapted for single specimens 



on large lawns. It does well in any good deep soil protected from 
the harsh wind. 

There are several fine species including j^sculus hippocEis- 
tanum (the common European variety), ^sculus Califomica 
(the common Buckeye), /Esculus glabra (the Ohio Buckeye) and 
a red- flowering variety named /Esculus camea; all are handsome 
and very desirable. 

Plant the seeds, as soon as gathered, one inch deep in nurserj' 
rows one foot apart; replant them in their permanent situations 
when they are four feet in height. 

Albizfia Julibrissin 

One of the most beautiful of our small flowering trees, of wide- 
spreading habit with fern-like foliage and great sprays of delicate 
pale-pink flowers, blossoming in 
July and August after most of 
our flowering trees are past 

The full effect of the beauty 

of this most interesting tree is 

had when it is planted on a rising 

ground, against a background of 

pine or other dark foliage, in the 

full sunlight in which it seems to 

delight. In the warm interior 

valleys it should do exceedingly 

well if planted in good, well- 

Aibizzia juiibriuin. drained soil and given some 

attention in the way of cultivation and a little water occasionally 

at its roots. 

It should be grown extensively both in the garden and as a 
sidewalk tree. 



Being a native of Armenia and the Levant it thrives in the 
climatic conditions along our coast and even in San Francisco. 

Wherever it has been planted and given a little care it has 
proved to be one of the best trees for showing grand effects in late 
SimMner and early Fall. 

It should not be planted in heavy clay soil or in a situation 
where water lies on the surface at any time. 

Propagate by seeds, sown one-quarter of an inch deep in heat, 
in February or March (or as soon as received); give pot-room 
as required. Cuttings are seldom successful. 

Alnus (Alder) 

A genus of hardy deciduous trees or shrubs which delight 
in moist situations, preferably on the banks of a perennial run- 
ning stream. They form handsome, upright, clean-stemmed trees 
with roundish leaves and grow to the height of from fifty to eighty 
feet. They are not particular as to soil, provided they are given 
plenty of water at the root and a sheltered situation. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, in the open ground 
and covered not more than one-quarter of an inch deep; the 
following Winter, plant them in nursery rows one foot apart; 
when they are three feet high, replant them where they are to 

Aloysia citriodora {Sweet-Scented Verbena) 

Hardy deciduous shrubs with sweet-scented leaves and incon- 
spicuous lilac-colored flowers. In the Eastern States and in 
Europe these shrubs are grown in the greenhouse where they are 
general favorites for cutting. In California they grow to the 
height of ten feet or more, having trunks six inches (and even 
greater) in diameter. They flourish in any good garden soil and 
stand a reasonable amount of exposure. 



Propagation of the Aloysia is eflfected by cuttings of the young 
wood placed in sandy soil in a cool frame in early Summer. 
They should be shaded, during sunshine, for a period of two 
weeks and should be potted singly in two-inch pots as soon as 
the cuttings are rooted. 

Amygdalus (Almond) 

This well-known hardy, ornamental, deciduous, vigorous 
grower is one of the earliest and most free-flowering of our 
trees and shrubs, the common single sometimes opening its pink 
blossoms as early as the middle of January, followed by the 
double-flowered varieties which succeed each other carrying the 
season well into April. 

Any good soil, if well drained, suits the Almond, and, if the 
soil is kept cultivated, the tree requires no artificial irrigation 
except in very dry seasons. 

The single flowered species are propagated by seeds planted 
one inch deep in the open groimd, in Fall or early Spring, and 
the double varieties by budding on the common Almond or on 
seedling plum-stocks in Siunmer. 


A genus of noble evergreen trees of vigorous habit and formal 
symmetrical outline, having horizontal branches in regular 
whorls, natives of South America and Australia. All are very 
desirable trees for large grounds and parks. 

They delight in a good strong loam free from stagnant mois- 
ture but must have frequent waterings at the roots during the 
Summer months 

Araucaria BidwiUi, Araucaria brasiliana, Araucaria Cookii, 
Araucaria excelsa, and Araucaria imbricata all make splendid 
ornamental trees in this climate. 



Propagate by seeds planted point down and pressed into the 
soil half their length, as soon as received (no matter at what time), 
in a cold frame and left without being disturbed until the follow- 
ing Spring when they should be planted in nursery rows and 
again transplanted each year until large enough to be placed in 
their permanent sites. 


Among the many species of Arbutus are several of our most 
handsome evergreen trees. The Madrone (Arbutus Menziesii) 
and the Strawberry tree (Arbutus Unedo) both do splendidly in 
CaUfomia. Their large, glossy, smooth leaves of elliptical shape, 
their fragrant, heath-like, white flowers and their bunches of red 
or yellow berries in the Autiman make them features in the land- 
scape or shrubbery. 

Propagate by sowing the seeds in the open ground as soon 
as they are ripe, covering them to the depth of a quarter of an 
inch. Transplant the seedlings, when a year old, into nursery 
rows, setting them six inches apart. They should be replanted 
each year xmtil they become large enough to be planted where 
they are to remain. 

AucuBA Japonica 

A genus of evergreen hardy shrubs with smooth and glossy 
laurel-like leaves, bearing bunches of scarlet berries late in the 
Fall. They are exceedingly effective in the shrubbery during the 
Winter months when color is most needed. They delight in 
plenty of water during the growing season. 

They make handsome veranda plants, grown in large pots or 
boxes, especially when in fruit. There are several varieties with 
variegated foliage such as picta alba variegata, bicolor and aurea. 

To insure a good supply of the very ornamental berries, which 
are produced on the female plant only, hand fertilizing may be 



necessary. The time for applying the pollen is when the pistil 
exudes a slightly gummy substance. Should the pollen be ripe 
before the pistU is mature, it may be preserved by being collected 
on a piece of dry paper and kept in a dry place. It should be 
applied with a camel's hair brush. The pollen retains its power 
for two weeks or perhaps a little longer. Any well-drained garden 
soil suits the Aucuba, and any situation not in the glaring hot 
sun. It does remarkably well even in the dust and smoke of the 

Propjagate by cuttings from short-jointed half-ripe wood 
placed in sandy soil in a cool frame in September; shade during 
sunshine for the first two weeks. It can also be propagated by 
sowing the seeds one-quarter of an mch deep as soon as ripe or in 
March. Remove the fleshy coating from the seeds before sowing. 


A genus of evergreen or deciduous flowering shrubs which 
should be seen in every collection as they are all free-flowering 
and of good habit of growth. 
They delight in a half- 
shady situation, protected 
from harsh winds and 
strong simshine, and away 
from cold draughts. They 
prefer a light sandy soil and 
abundance of water within 
reach of their roots. 

Propagate by cuttings 

of half -ripe wood taken off 

Aaaiea, with a heel in Jxme or July; 

insert them in pots filled 

with soil composed of half silver-sand, half leaf-mold well mixed 

together; place them in a cool frame, and shade during sunshine, 



until rooted. When rooted, plant them in small pots and return 
them to the frame; shade them until they form fresh roots when 
they should be placed in a shady spot out of doors or preferably 
in a lath-house, the object being to keep the plants as cool as 

The evergreen species seem to do best when grown in pots in 
a lath-house or under the shade of a deciduous tree, being brought 
into the greenhouse only during the season of flowering which is 
in late Winter and early Spring. As soon as they finish flowering, 
the seed-pods should be picked oflf and the plants returned to the 
lath-house so as to make their yoimg growth. As their roots are 
very fine, the soil should never be allowed to become dry. The 
deciduous species are best grown in the open border partially 
shaded by deciduous trees. 


A showy evergreen shrub with small box-like foliage and of 
graceful habit of growth, bearing fragrant flowers succeeded by 
orange-colored berries. Being a native of Chile, it is well adapted 
to our climate. 

Propagate by cuttings of firm wood of present season's growth, 
placed in sand, in cold frame in September or early in October. 


The Banksia is a very desirable class of small trees or shrubs, 
native of Australia. It has handsome serrated leaves (covered 
with white down) and briUiant masses of feathery-looking 
flowers making a pleasing effect in the garden or shrubbery. 

In Australia the Banksia is known as the Scrub Honeysuckle 
from the fact that when the cylindrical-shaped flowers are in full 
bloom they contain a sweet honey-like liquid. 



The genus contains many varieties and grows in any soil well 
drained even if it be the poorest sand. 

Propagate by seeds, which should be sown as soon as received, 
in soil composed of half sand and half leaf-mold; cover the seeds 
one-quarter of an inch deep and place them in a cold frame. 
When the seedlings are one inch high, pot them singly in two-inch 



A hardy evergreen small tree or shrub, native of Japan and 
South Africa, bearing white comus-like flowers which con- 
tinue in bloom for nearly two months. The reddish strawberry- 
like fruit hangs on the tree late into the winter, making the plant 
a very desirable one for the shrubbery border. 

The Benthamia is not particular as to soil and requires very 
littie irrigation. 

Propagate by seeds sown in early Spring, in the open border 
or in a cold frame, in light soil. The seeds should be covered to 
the depth of one-quarter of an inch and the young plants should 
be transplanted when they are a year old. 

Berberis (Barberry) 

The Berberis is a genus of shrubs of which many varieties 
have handsome shiny compound leaves while the leaves of others 
are small, round, oval or holly-like. 

Berberis Aquifolium, one of the favorite varieties, is a native 
of California and Oregon. It delights in a shady hillside, making 
a very good undergrowth. 

Berberis Darwinii is a beautiful Winter-blooming plant. It 
forms a dense bush, and, when covered with its bright orange- 
colored flowers, makes a striking effect. 

Berberis nepalensis also has yellow flowers and compound 



leaves with from six to ten pairs of leaflets of a rich holly-green; 
it bears large clusters of purple berries during the Winter months. 
It should be planted in a shady spot protected from drying winds. 

Berberis Japonica is another of the Nepaul type with com- 
pwimd leaves and purple fruit. Other desirable kinds are Berberis 
stenophylla, Berberis buxifolia and Berberis loxensis. 

Propagate by seeds sown about one-eighth of an inch deep as 
soon as ripe, or by layers, suckers or cuttings put In sandy soil the 
end of September or early in October. 

Betula alba (Birch) 
The Birch is a highly ornamental deciduous tree of graceful 
(sometimes drooping) habit, bearing light-green leaves. All of the 
species are hardy and will grow freely in any well-drained soil, 
provided they get abundance of water at the roots. A situation 
on or about a well-kept lawn suits the Birch admirably if it is 
sheltered from harsh winds. Fine effects are produced by com- 
bining the Birch with the Bamboo, as, when planted in group 
form, their habits of growth blend excellently. 
Propagate by seeds which should 
be sown, as soon as ripe, in 
a shady border in light sandy ■ 
soil; barely cover the seeds with 
the soil. The seedlings should be 
transplanted, when a year old, 
into nursery rows. 


The Bouvardia is a very use- 
ful Fall-flowering little shrub 
with opposite leaves and tubu- 
lar-shaped fragrant flowers, a BouvardU. 
native of Mexico and Texas. Bouvardia augustifoUa, Bouvar- 


dia scabra and Bouvardia jasminiflora are among the best for 
outdoor culture. 

Propagate by cuttings put in a cold frame early in August, 
using half-ripe wood, or in the open ground, in November, in 
sandy soil, using firm ripe wood, the cuttings to be about six 
inches in length, of the previous season's growth and planted four 
inches deep. 

Buxus {The Tree Boxwood) 

This is an excellent shrub for the coast counties, being e\'er- 
green and of a dense habit; it requires no pruning. Slow of 
growth and always clear of dust, 
it gets along with httle water 
and thrives in any garden soil, 
while it is also a good box-plant 
for verandas, etc. 

Some very good varieties 
have been introduced from Ja- 
pan, several of them with larger 
leaves and more vigorous habit 
of growth than any of the Euro- 
pean species, one of these being 
Buxus Japyonica, which grows to 
the height of ten feet, while 
B«««»- Buxus Japonica variety micro- 

phylla has very small leaves, grows rather conical in shape and 
forms a dense bush. 

Buxus longifolia (a native of Northern India) has narrow 
elliptic-shaped leaves. Buxus balearica is the largest of the 
genus, has yellowish-green leaves and, in good soil, grows to the 
height of thirty feet. Buxus suffruticosa, the dwarf species, is 
much used in formal gardening, in making edges to footpath 
and flower-beds, and in bordering walks in vegetable gardens. 



Propagate by cuttings six inches long, inserted four inches in 
sandy soil at any time between September and February. 

When the cuttings are of the dwarf variety, for an edging 
or border, they sould be planted singly about one inch apart. 


A genus of very pretty Summer and Fall-flowering shrubs 
with narrow pointed leaves and showy flowers. All are graceful 
in habit and grow well in 
any fair garden soil where 
they require very little at- 
tention if the ground is cul- 
tivated once a year and 
kept loose on the surface 
and clear of weeds. 

There are several species 
all natives of Australia. 

Propagate by seeds 

sown one-eighth of an inch 

deep in April. When the CaUWemon. 

seedlings are three inches high, pot them singly in three-inch pots 
or plant them in light sandy soil, three inches apart, in boxes; 
keep the young plants in pots or boxes until the foUowing Spring 
when they will be large enough to be planted in the open ground 
in nursery rows or in their permanent quarters. 

Calycanthus (Carolina Allspice) 

The Calycanthus is a handsome deciduous shrub with sweet- 
scented red or yellow-brown flowers, native of this State, the 
Southern States and Japan. 

It grows in any good soil which is well drained, and prefers 
a sheltered situation. 



Propagate by sowing the seeds during Spring in a cold frame, 
covering the seeds to the depth of one-quarter of an inch; also by 
division of the roots of the older plants in Winter or early Spring. 


A genus of hardy evergreen trees or shrubs of elegant habit, 
bearing gorgeous vari-colored flowers. Some are single, many 
are semi-double, and hundreds of 
varieties have double flowers in 
all shades of red, pink, and 
white or beautifully mottled or 
striped. With a good well- 
selected variety, they may be 
had in bloom for four or five 
. months beginning in January. 
The Camellia loves a par- 
tially - shaded situation away 
from cold winds, good deep 
sandy soil and plenty of water 
during the Siunmer months. 
Camellia Propagate by cuttings in 

September, or by layering in the usual manner in June and July, 
or by seeds sown one-quarter of an inch deep as soon as delivered 
or in the early Spring. 


Hardy deciduous ornamental trees and shrubs with pinnate 
leaves and pea-shaped flowers, mostly natives of Siberia and 
Northern China. They grow in any garden soil. 

Propagate by cuttings of the roots or by layers between 
November and February, or by seeds sown in Spring. Cover the 
seeds to the depth of one-eighth of an inch. 



Carpinus Betulus (Hornbean) 

A hardy deciduous tree with simple leaves and flowers in 
catkins. It stands exposure well, grows in any soil, and should 
make a good street tree where deciduous low-growing trees are 

It also forms a very good hedge and stands clipping well. 
As the leaves remain on the branches throughout the Winter, it 
becomes an excellent shelter, standing the winds and storms better 
than most deciduous trees. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, one-quarter of an 
inch deep in the open ground; transplant the seedlings to the 
nursery row when they are one year old. If they are wanted for 
hedge purposes, they should be cut back to six inches when 
transplanted so as to make them branch closely to the ground. 


A handsome, slow-growing tree with pinnate, walnut-like, 
light-green, deciduous leaves. It is of a spreading habit and 
delights in good, rich, bottom soil and a sheltered situation. The 
wood is heavy, hard, tough and strong. The nuts of many species 
such as the pecan and the shagbark are of good flavor and are 
produced in large quantities on the older .ttees. Any one having 
a piece of land by the side of a creek, where the soil is deep and 
rich and the situation well-sheltered, should plant a few HicljLories. 

Carya alba (the shellbark Hickory) makes a grand specimen 
from sixty to seventy feet high. 

Carya olivaeformis (the Pecan-nut tree) also becomes a 
splendid tree. It differs in habit from the Hickory, being more 
upright in its form and having from twelve to fifteen leaflets on 
each leaf. 

Propagate by seeds planted in Fall or Winter one inch deep 
where they are intended to remain permanently. 




This is one of the most common of our California garden 
shrubs, giving a fine show of pea-shaped yellow flowers in Winter. 
It has pinnate leaves and grows 
from six to twelve feet in height. 
It should be pruned back each 
Spring so that the plant will keep 
in shape and make strong shoots. 
It flowers most freely on the 
previous year's wood. It thrives 
in any garden soil and requires 
no artificial irrigation if the 
ground is kept cultivated and 
clear of weeds. 

There are several varieties of 
this popular shrub including 
'^'»*''- Cassia corymbosa, Cassia mari- 

landica, Cassia sophera, etc., all being of easy culture. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-eighth of an inch deep in a cold 
frame in early Spring; when the young seedlings are three inches 
high, they should be potted or planted either in boxes or in the 
open ground. 

Castanea {Chestnut) 

The sweet or Spanish Chestnut is a large spreading deciduous 
tree of good habit and very ornamental. It delights in a shel- 
tered situation and should have deep, well-drained, sandy loam. 
Never plant it in a cold clay subsoil. 

Propagate by seeds sown one inch deep in the open ground, 
between November and February. The foUowing Spring trans- 
plant the seedlings into nursery rows, one foot apart between the 
plants and two feet between the rows. 


Casuarina (She-oak) 

The Casuarinas are a genus of jointed leafless trees which 
have a very distinct and 
peculiar effect in any land- 
scape, their long, drooping, 
feather-like habit being 
quite different from that of 
any other tree. They reach 
a height of from sixty to 
eighty feet, are evergreen, 
grow in any soil, stand 
exposure well and should be 
planted more commonly 
than they are. Catuarina. 

Propagate by cuttings put into a cold frame in the Fall and 
potted off in Spring or as soon as they are well-rooted; also by 
seeds sown in Spring. Cover the seeds to the depth of one-eighth 
of an inch. 

Ceanothus {California Lilac) 

This elegant native of our hillsides deserves more attention 
from planters than it now receives, 
few flowering-shrubs equalling it 
for grouping in large grounds or as 
single plants in small gardens. 
Its graceful habit of growth, its 
deep-green leaves, and its showers 
of blue or white panicles of sweet- 
scented blossoms make it effective 
in any garden. Its culture is very 
simple as it seems to thrive and 
bloom in the poorest soils and in 
all aspects. 

Propagate by sowing the seeds 
Ceanothui. one-sixteenth of an inch deep, 



in the open ground in early Spring, and transplanting, where 
required, the following season. 


A majestic evergreen coniferous tree with large spreading 

branches. It delights in a deep well-drained gravelly loam and a 

sheltered situation where it grows 

to the height of from eighty to one 

hundred feet. 

Cedrus Libani (the Cedar of 
Lebanon) is of similar habit to our 
Monterey Cypress, both as a young 
tree (when its habit is pyramidal) 
and as a fiill-grown specimen when 
it assumes the picturesque spread- 
ing form with horizontal branches 
and broad flat head of dark mossy- 
green foliage which is so greatly 
Cedrut Libani. Young ^>ecimen. Cedrus Atlantica (from Mount 

Atlas) is very similar in appear- 
ance to Cedrus Libani, being, however, more pyramidal in habit 
and having a hghter, more glaucous-colored leaf. Cedrus 
Atlantica glauca, a silvery-leafed form of Cedrus Atlantica, is a 
most desirable variety on account of its striking, silvery-grey 
effect when planted among trees which have dark-green foliage. 
Cedrus Deodora (the East Indian Cedar) becomes a much 
larger tree than any other of the species, growing, under favor- 
able conditions, to the height of two hundred feet and having a 
stem over ten feet in diameter. When young it is a gracefully 
pyramidal tree, densely set with leaves of a glaucous green. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-eighth of an inch deep, in Spring 
or as soon as ripe. 




A genus of hardy deciduous or eve^reen trees or shrubs, 
many species of which are highly ornamental, our native ever- 
green species being in many re- 

spects the most handsome of all. 
Its shiny dark-green, holly-like 
leaves and bushy habit make it 
a general favorite with planters. 
It grows freely in any garden 
soil which is well-drained, pre- 
ferring a loose rocky soil with 
an Eastern exposure. The so- 
called English Laurel and the 
Portugal species are also much 
admired, and the Chinese 
double-flowering deciduous spe- 
cies is one of our gayest Spring- Portugal Laurel, 
flowering shrubs. 

Our native species Cerasus ilicifoha is propagated by seeds 
sown one-half of an inch deep, in early Spring, either where they 
are to remain, or singly in pots where they should be kept until 
they are from twelve to eighteen inches high. 

The English Laurel and the Portugal Laurel may be pro- 
pagated by seeds sown, one-quarter of an inch deep, in the 
open groirnd in early Spring, or by cuttings planted in October in 
sandy soil in the open ground where they should be kept for one 
year and then replanted in nursery rows until required. 

Cerasus serrulata and other double-flowering varieties are 
propagated by budding on the common Cherry about May. 



Cercis {Judas Tree) 
An ornamental, hardy, deciduous, low-growing tree with 
heart-shaped leaves and pea-shaped 
flowers which thickly crowd the 
branches, flowering before the leaves 
open. When in bloom in early Spring 
it gives a very good effect. It grows in 
the foothills of the State by the side of a 
creek, mixing very prettily with the 
alder and the willow, and, when in 
flower, may be seen for miles, causing 
the traveller to wonder what the strik- 
ing object is. It delights in rich, moist, 
well-drained soil in a semi-shaded situa- 
tion away from the wind. It is prop- 
c^^"*- agated by seeds sown, in early Spring, 

one-quarter of an inch deep in the open ground. 


An evergreen shrub of upright habit and variously-colored 
flowers in cymes or fascicles blooming 
in Winter or early Spring. It should 
have a well-sheltered position and does 
best in light sandy soil, not being hardy 
where the temperature falls below 
twenty-six degrees Fahrenheit. The 
best known species are Cestrum elegans 
(purplish-red), Cestrum fasciculatum 
and Cestrum aurantiacum (yellow), all 
natives of Mexico, 

Propagate by cuttings placed in cold 
frame, in soil compwsed of half sand and 
half leaf -mold, in September ; shade 
from the sun until rooted. Cesnum. 



Choisya ternata 

One of our best Winter-bloom- 
ing shrubs, having temate leaves 
and white sweet-scented flowers. 
It should have a place even in 
the smallest collection, being of 
dwarf bushy habit and very 
free-flowering. It grows in any 
good garden soil. 

Propagate by cuttings put 
into half sand half leaf-soil in a 
cold frame in early May or as 
soon as the blooming season is 
over or in August after the 
yoimg wood is half-ripe. Chotoya Umata. 

CiSTUS (Rock-Rose) 

A genus of elegant free-flowering small shrubs with a large 
handsome flower resembling a single rose. This charming genus 
has a large niunber of spe- 
cies which should be more 
commonly seen in our gar- 
dens as they are of easy 
culture and require little 
water for their develop- 
ment. Being natives of the 
coast of the Mediterranean, 
they are peculiarly adapted 
to introduction into Cali- 
CWu*. They are propagated by 

seeds sown under glass in Spring {the seeds being barely 
covered by finely-sifted, sandy soil), or by cuttings of young 



wood, three or four inches long, placed in soil composed of one- 
half sand, one-half leaf-mold, in a cold frame, either in Spring or 
Fall; as soon as they are rooted, pot them into three-inch pots 
in soil composed of two-thirds leaf-soil and one-third sand with 
the addition of a little loam. 

Citrus Aurantium (Orange) 

The Orange as a diecorative garden tree is not so well known 
as the Orange grown as a fruit tree. It forms, however, most 
charming effects in the landscape when planted either in group 
form or as single specimens on the lawn, especially if grown in 
tree form with a stem of from six to eight feet and a spread of 
branch, fifteen or more feet across, covered densely with its great 
masses of bright evergreen foliage and its beautiful, fragrant, 
white flowers which are nearly always in bloom. It also is un- 
excelled as a winter garden ornament when laden with its golden 
fruit. There are many highly ornamental species, including 
Citrus Aurantium (the Sweet Orange) a native of Asia, Citrus 
Decumana (the Shaddock) with fruit from six to eight inches in 
diameter, Citrus Japonica which makes a very pretty bush, 
Citrus Limetta (the Lime), Citrus Limonum (Lemon), Citrus 
nobilis (Mandarin), Citrus trifoliata (with its prickly stems and 
small ornamental fruit) which makes a handsome bush and is also 
a good hedge plant, and Citrus vulgaris (Bitter Orange) which 
grows to the height of forty feet and is a handsome tree. 

Propagate by seeds, sown one-quarter of an inch deep under 
glass. Transplant the seedUngs, when three inches high, into 
nursery rows; keep them in the nursery until they are from four 
to six feet high and then plant them in their permanent quarters. 
The finer varieties may be increased by budding on the common 




Evergreen and deciduous small trees or shrubs, valuable on 
account of their showy spUtes of fragrant white flowers which 
appear late in summer. The evergreen species (such as Clethra 
arborea) are noted for the laurel effect which their large, glossy 
leaves give. They thrive under our California conditions. 
Clethra arborea (a native of Madeira) is perhaps the finest of 
the species. Clethra quercifo) a does exceedingly well in the 
warmer sections of the state. 

Propagate by seeds sown in early Spring in a cool green- 
house temperature (covering the seeds to the depth of an eighth 
of an inch), or by cuttings in sandy leaf-mold placed in a cold 
frame during September. 

The Clethra flourishes in any fair garden soil. 


A genus of about three species of hardy evergreen shrubs, 
natives of New Zealand and 
Australia. They have com- 
pound leaves and bear great 
masses of brilliant scarlet pea- 
shaped blossoms, continuing in 
bloom for several months. Cli- 
anthus puniceus is the hardiest 
of the genus and is of the most 
easy culture, growing freely in 
any soil of a sandy nature either 
in the open or in partial shade. 

Propagate by cuttings of half- 
ripe wood inserted in a cold 

frame in March and shaded from cuantho* punlc«us. 

hot sunshine until rooted when they should be potted singly in 
three-inch pots and grown on until required, 



CoPROSMA {New Zealand Holly) 

A genus of handsomely-leaved evergreen shrubs which should 
be m every collection. They grow freely in any situation (even in 
the smoky city garden), their glossy hoUy-green leaves refusing to 
carry any dust. They contrast well with our rough-leaved shrubs. 

The genus comprises over thirty species, mostly natives of 
New Zealand and other Pacific Islands. Coprosma Baueriana and 
its varieties are the best for cultivation on the Pacific Coast. 
Coprosma picturata and Coprosma variegata, being variegated 
forms of Coprosma Baueriana, are very attractive. 

This shrub is not so easily propagated as most of our other 
free-flowering shrubs, and should be given extra care in being 
shaded from hot sxm. In making the cuttings, slit the lower end 
to the depth of three-quarters of an inch; insert them in soil 
composed of two-thirds clear sand and one-third'well-decomposed 
leaf-mold in a cold frame in September. Do not overwater them. 
As soon as rooted, they should be potted off in thvmib pots, put 
back into the cutting frame and kept close and shaded until they 
take fresh roots. Propagation may also be effected by seeds sown 
one-eighth of an inch deep in light sandy soil in Spring. 

CoRNUS (Dogwood) 

The Dogwood is one of the most attractive of our ornamental 
deciduous shrubs, delighting in semi-shaded moist places pro- 
tected from winds, and thriving best in light rich soil. One of 
our native species, Comus Nuttallii, is the finest of the genus, 
growing in favorable situations to a height of from sixty to eighty 
feet, pyramidal in habit, and, in early May when entirely covered 
with its great white bracts, is the most conspicuous and attractive 
object in the mountains and foothills. In the Fall, when laden 
with its orange-colored fruit, it gives good effects in the shrub- 



bery. All of the species are very desirable, especially Comus 
sanguinea and Comus florida, these making good undergrowth 
even in the darkest shade. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in sandy soil in a shaded pro- 
tected border out of doors after the leaves fall in Autumn. They 
may also be increased by division of the roots in Winter or early 
Spring, by seeds sown in Spring and by layering in Jime. Cover 
the seeds to the depth of one-eighth of an inch. 


Very pretty small-growing ornamental shrubs and perennial 
herbs of easy cultiure and graceful habit, having glaucous and 
variegated leaves. They are well adapted to planting on the 
margin of shrubbery groups. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in sand in a cold frame early in 
September; leave them in the frame all Winter and pot them 
ofE in Spring in pots of light rich soil; grow them in pots for a 
year and then plant them in their permanent situations. 


Handsome evergreen trees, native of New Zealand, with 
laurel-like leaves and pyramidal habit, bearing white flowers and 
pliun-like fruit. No evergreen tree or shrub gives a better effect 
in large shrubberies than the Corynecarpus and it should be 
foimd in even the most choice collection. 

Propagate, at any time from June to September, by cuttings 
taken from half-ripe wood; place them in a cold frame shaded 
from sun, and, when rooted, pot them in three-inch pots; plant 
them in the open ground the following Spring. 




A genus of hardy evergreen shrubs with small boxwood-like 
leaves and small white flowers, 
bearing abundant crops of bright- 
red berries which remain conspicu- 
ous for months. It begins to ripen 
in California in July, carrying its 
fruit until the following Spring. 

Propagate by seeds, cuttings or 
layers in the open ground; sow the 
seeds one-eighth of an inch deep 
in March; put in the cuttings or 
layers any time dunng the Fall. It 
is of easy culture, requiring very 
little attention beyond being given 
cobmatter. ^ Utjle water during the Summer 


Crataegus {Hawthorn) 

A genus of hardy shrubs and small trees with single leaves 
and great sprays of sweet-scented pretty flowers. No hardy 
flowering tree gives finer color effects in the landscape than the 
Hawthorn, whether planted in groups or grown as single speci- 
mens. The Hawthorn prefers a good stiff loam or clayey soil, 
and, if the soil is kept well cultivated, no artificial irrigation 
will be required after the first year. 

Propagate by seeds sown in the Fall, or as soon as the pulpy 
matter can be rotted from the seed; cover to the depth of half an 
inch and transplant the following Winter into nursery rows. 
The red-flowering and double white varieties are propagated by 
budding in May or by grafting in Winter on the conmion species 
in the usual manner. It should be noted that while some seeds 
germinate the first season, others may not germinate until the 
second year. 


CupreSMi* Nutkaensls, the Alaskan Sp«ciei. 



A genus comprising only two species, both indigenous to 
Japan. They prefer a rich, moist, well-sheltered sitxiation and 
abundance of water during the Summer months, when they form 
elegant specimens of pyramidal habit. 

Propagate by, seeds sown one-eighth of an inch deep in a 
cold frame in Spring. When they are four inches high, plant 
them in nursery rows (giving room as required) where they may 
remain until wanted. 

CuPRESSUS {Cypress) 

The Monterey Cypress is a universal favorite, nearly every 
garden having a r^resentative of this species. It makes an 
excellent wind-break and stands ex- 
posure as well as, if not better than, 
any tree we have experimented with 
whether indigenous or exotic. It is 
of vigorous habit and assumes stately 
proportions. When full grown and 
when its massive flat crown is well- 
formed, no tree has more character or 
more striking individuality. It grows 
well in any soil but prefers rich well- 
drained loam. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana is of more 
elegant form than the preceding, being 
of pyramidal habit and graceful out- Cuprewui UwMmUna. 
line. Cupressus sempervirens (the Italian Cypress) is of a tall 
tapering habit and formal appearance. 

The Cypress makes an excellent hedge. 

All of the species are easily propagated by seeds sown, in the 
early Spring, one-quarter of an inch deep, in boxes, and placed 
in a cold frame. When they are three inches high transplant 



them into boxes (placing them three inches apart) and after- 
wards plant them out in nursery rows about one foot apart. 

Cydonia Japonica {Japan Quince) 

A genus of dwarf deciduous flowering shrubs, opening their 
flowers as early as the middle of January. There are several 
species all of which are very desirable, some having scarlet 
flowers, others bright pink, and one species {Cydonia Japonica 
alba) bearing flowers of the purest white. They are all an easily 
grown, free- flowering class of plants which should be seen in every 
collection, as they thrive in any soil and require httle attention. 

They are propagated by layers in July, or by cuttings put in 
the open ground in October. 

CvTisus {Broom) 

A genus of about forty species of shrubs bearing pea-shaped 

^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ flowers in great abundance. They 

^^^^B^^^H ^H are very easy culture, and, without 

^^^^^^^^^^B ^^1 irrigation, grow freely in any soil, even 

^^^^^ ^^^^^^1 the poorest. 

^^■^^^^^^^H Propagate by seeds sown one- 

^^^^^^J^^^^ quarter of an inch deep in the open 

^K^^H^ ground or in a cold frame in early 

^^^^^^^k ^_ Spring. When the seedluigs are four 

^^^B ^H ^1 inches high, transplant them into 

^^^H ^^B^ nursery rows and grow them on until 

^^^H ^^P^^^ required. Cytisus racemosus and 

^^^^■^f^ ^^^B others of the class may also be in- 

^^^^^^^K ^^^^ creased by cuttings, placed in a cold 

^™'™- frame in October, and shaded from 

sunshine until rooted, when they should be potted singly in small 





A genus of very ornamental evergreen or deciduous shrubs, 
their sweet-scented flowers and comjiact habit of growth makmg 
them desirable for planting in our shrubberies. 

They prefer a warm, sheltered situation, away from harsh 
winds and hot sunshine, and a soft brown soil with perfect 

Propagate by cuttings placed, in September, in a cool frame 
and left there until calloused. They should then be placed in 
a gentle bottom heat when they will soon make root and be 
ready for potting in three-inch pots; give them root-room as 

Datura (Cornucopia Flower) 

Herbs, shrubs or trees with large entire tongue-shaped leaves, 
bearing trumpet-shaped flowers 
sometimes over a foot long. 
The flowers are of various colors, 
including white, orange and red. 
Some varieties are very fragrant, 
especially at night. They grow 
well in any good garden soil 
with ordinary care. 

The best kinds are Datura 
sanguinea, Datura arborea. Da- 
tura suaveolens and Datura 

Propagate by cuttings of 
half-ripe wood placed in sandy Datura (uaveoiew. 

soU in a cold frame in October; as soon as they are rooted, plant 
them in pots, and, in early Spring, plant them in the open ground. 




A genus of hardy, deciduous, strong-growing shrubs of easy 
culture, which, on account of their free-flowering qualities should 
have a place in every garden however small. They thrive in 
ahnost any soil, and well repay the trouble incurred in their 

Deutzia crenata grows to a height of about ten feet; Deutzia 
gracilis has a dwarf compact habit and should be planted on the 
margin of a group of taller shrubs, where it will give a fine finish 
to the group. 

Propagate by cuttings of the ripe wood placed in the open 
ground in November; when they are rooted run them into nur- 
sery rows; give them room as required. 


A genus of hardy ornamental low-growing deciduous shrubs, 
mostly natives of China and Japan. No shrubbery is complete 
without a collection of these elegant free- flowering shrubs. They 
grow well in any garden soil and repay the attention bestowed on 
them. They bloom in early Spring and continue in bloom for 
a good length of time. As soon as the plants are finished bloom- 
ing, prune the previous year's growth back to within six inches 
of its growth, so as to encourage the plants to throw out strong 
shoots, the best flowers always being foimd on the growth of the 
previous year. 

Propagate by . cuttings (made of the previous Summer's 
growth) about six inches long placed in sandy soil in the open 
groimd in November or as soon as the leaves are all off. In the 
Spring, as soon as the cuttings are well rooted, plant them in 
nursery rows for a year when they may be transplanted into 
their place in the shrubbery. 



DiosMA (Breath of Heaven) 

A genus of heath-Uke graceful shrubs with grass-Uke leaves 
and crowds of delicate white flowers. On account of its exquisite 
fragrance and delicate foliage this plant is much used in decorat- 
ing and filling vases. It delights in a light, sandy soil and plenty 
of water. As it is rather a dwarf grower, it should be planted 
near the walks or on the edges of shrub-groups, for if planted 
among strong-growing shrubs it is apt to get lost or grown over. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in a propagating house in gentle 
heat at any time between April and September; after they are 
rooted, pot them singly in thumb pots, giving them larger pots 
as required and using leafy sandy soil. 


A South American shrub with blue or white flowers in temate 
racemes. If given a warm sheltered situation in the full sun it 
does well and is very attractive. 

Propagate by cuttings in Fall or Spring. 

EcHUJM {Viper's hugloss) 

A group of shrubby or herbaceous 
plants with large tongue-shaped leaves 
of a glaucous color thickly covered with 
fine hairs. They bear immense spikes 
of blue, pink or white flowers, form- 
ing very striking objects in the shrub- 
bery, their large gray leaves effectively 
contrasting with their bright-blue flow- 
ers. They grow well in any good 
garden soil. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-six- 
teenth of an inch deep in the early 
Spring, or by cuttings placed in sand in ''™' 



a cold frame in October or November; grow them in pots for 
one year and plant them in the shrubbery the following Spring. 

El.«agnus {Wild Olive) 

A small genus of evergreen or deciduous shrubs of easy 
growth and attractive appearance, their glaucous downy leaves 
giving a soft effect when well placed in the landscape. The 
flowers are inconspicuous, their chief attraction being their leaves 
and fruit and also their graceful habit of growth. They do best 
in light sandy soil. 

Propagate by seeds or cuttings placed, in October, in the 
open ground in sandy soil. Cover the seeds to the depth of one- 
eighth of an inch. 

Erica {Healk Family) 

A most extensive genus comprising over four hundred species, 
all hardy in California, most of them being natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope and the Australian -group. 
They ought to be seen in gardens more 
commonly than they are, as many of them 
are very easily grown and blossom in Win- 
ter and early Spring when flowers are 
scarce. They are among the most attrac- 
tive of our flowering shrubs, and, as they 
are generally slow-growing and of neat 
habit, are well adapted for small gardens. 
All the care necessary is to give them a 
sandy soil, plenty of water, and a prune 
back immediately after flowering so as to 
encourage the forming of young growth 
Erica peraoluta alba. on which they will flower the following 

In Europe and the East great care and considerable skill are 
thought necessary to grow these plants successfully. There they 


•••••••• ••, 

•••,•••• •••• 

•• • • • • • •,• , 

• •• 

• • • 

TREES AND •..&-.!£ J -R:.:!^.:-^:/^ 

must be grown in pots, in specially prepared soil, in greenhouses 
and watered carefully. Even with the best of care however 
they often there die off suddenly or are attacked by mildew, etc., 
and thrown into poor health, whereas here they seem to grow 
without any special care, giving grand results. 

The best for every-day culture are Erica persoluta, Erica 
gracilis, Erica hyemalis, Erica melanthera, Erica Willmorei, 
Erica arborea, Erica ventricosa. Erica capitata, Erica hybrida, 
Erica Mediterranea and their varieties. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in a cool frame late in the Fall, 
October or early in November being. the best season; shade them 
from bright sunshine; pot them off as soon as rooted, in thumb 
pots, in sandy, leafy soil. 

Erythrina (Coral-Tree) 

A genus of plants with trifoliate leaves and pea-shaped flowers 
mostly dark-red in color (the individual flowers being of large 
size and generaUy in large clusters) forming very striking objects 
in the garden or pleasure-ground. They delight in good heavy 
loam and plenty of water during the Summer months, and revel 
in our hottest sun. They do well nearly all over the State except- 
ing close to the coast where the cool fogs of Summer are not 
agreeable to their sun-loving nature. 

The tree species, Erythrina Humei, grows to the height of 
from forty to sixty feet. It is a native of South Africa. 

Erythrina Indica is another of the family which ought to do 
better in California than experiments so far have shown. It 
grows to the height of about thirty feet and is a free bloomer, 
having great masses of pea-shaped, brilliant scarlet flowers. 

These have several varieties which should be placed in warm, 
sheltered spots in our gardens. 

Propagate by seeds sown in early Spring one-eighth of an 
inch deep in hot-bed; plant in permanent quarters the following 
May or early June. 




The Escallonias may be classed among our most useful shrubs, 
doing well however situated either as regards soil or expK>sure. 
They are natives of the 
! cooler coxmtries of South 
j America, principally Chile 
and Patagonia. They all 
are evergreen and free- 
growing, so make excellent 
hedges, besides being very 
good plants for heavy 
I grouping. Another, good 
I quaUty is their habit of 
' blooming late in the Fall 
Escallonia roMa. and early Winter, when 

color is scarce, the Escallonia Montevidensis with its great bundles 
of terminal white blossoms having a very striking effect in Novem- 
ber and December. The red- flowering Escallonia rubra and pink- 
flowering Escallonia rosea, the flowers of which contrast finely 
with the glossy green of the leaves, are much admired by lovers 
of fine shrubs. 

There are about thirty-five species of this interesting family, 
all of them hardy, standing well the strongest winds and thriv- 
ing even close to the ocean if not too near the salt spray. They 
make splendid pillar plants for the terrace or formal garden. 

They stand pruning and are easily transplanted at almost 
any season. All the preparation necessary is to cut the plant 
well back, pruning off the small limbs and leaves so that only 
the larger branches remain. The roots should be dug up without 
any soil attached and, after being planted, the plant should be 
given a good watering. In a few weeks it will show new growth. 
Propagate by cuttings put in sandy leaf-mold in a cold frame 
in October; the following Spring plant them out in nursery 
rows until large enough to be planted in their permanent quarters, 

Eucalyptus lictColia. 

• • • 

• • 

• •• 

• • 

• • 

• • 

I • • 


Eucalyptus (Australian Gum) 

This genus is one of the most useful of our introduced exotics. 
True, it is sometimes found to be a nuisance, especially when the 
common Blue Gum has been planted in good soil along narrow 
streets and its roots have been within reach of a poorly laid sewer, 
for it will find out poor work more quickly •than most sewer 
inspectors, the tiniest crack or the smallest pinhole being surely 
discovered by the roots of this rampant gross feeder. Should a 
pin-hole be left in the sewer pipe, the Eucalyptus quickly enters 
and in a very short time fills the pipe so full of roots, that it stops 
up the entire pipe, sometimes for the distance of a hundred feet. 
This is not the situation for a Eucalyptus of the globulus variety, 
but the tree merits a place in the landscape and that place should 
be a prominent one. In an out of the way corner which cannot 
be used for any other crop, or, on some high knoll where shelteV 
is needed and little else will grow. Eucalyptus globulus (Blue 
Gum) can be planted to advantage, but there are many other 
species which may be introduced and which give fine effects even 
in the most choice collections. 

For instance take Eucalyptus piperita : when grown in a suit- 
able place it is as graceful as the Birch ; and no Willow has a finer 
drooping effect than Eucal5^tus saligna with its willow-shaped 
leaves; or again, the red-flowering variety (Eucalyptus leucoxyla, 
var. macrocarpa), when laden with its bright-pink, myrtle-like 
blossoms has a most striking effect in the landscape, while the 
scarlet-blooming Eucalyptus ficifolia is very effective even in 
small gardens as are also Eucalyptus comuta (yellow flowered), 
Eucalyptus tetragonus (crimson-flowered and a dwarf grower), 
and Eucalyptus Landsdowniana (also a dwarf grower with small 
red flowers and rather broad dark-green leaves). Still another 
dwarf grower of bushy habit is the Eucalyptus pyriformis so 
named on account of the pea shape of the calyx ; this species has 
pink flowers and is said to grow in the poorest lands' such as in 

[ 103 ] 


the dryest regions of South Australia. Eucalyptus corymbosa 
and its varieties give graceful foliage eflFects where room can be 
spared for them. Eucalyptus viminalis is a species which is 
almost indispensable where trees of a graceful or semi-drooping 
habit of growth are desired. Where the rainfall is light and a 
symmetrical well-balanced top is desired, the Eucalyptus corj'^- 
nocalyx can be safely recommended as it has been proven beyond 
a doubt to survive our dryest seasons, even when most of the 
strong vigorous growers, like Eucalyptus globulus and Eucal>T)tus 
amygdalina, have died off for lack of sufficient moisture. Euca- 
l5^tus amygdalina is said to be the tallest-growing tree in the 
world, attaining, in the valleys of its native country, to the 
height of between five hundred and six hundred feet; it has rather 
dense foUage and a bright-green leaf. Eucal5^tus sideroxylon 
(the iron bark) is one of the most desirable for planting in our 
interior valleys as it stands drought well; it is best known by its 
dark-brown iron-like persistent bark, red flowers and light-gray 
foliage; planted in group-form it gives a most striking effect in 
the landscape. 

There is a great variety of this family of Australian trees, 
and, where space can be secured or spared, that space can be 
profitably used for planting the different species of this very 
ornamental and useful genus. 

Propagation is by seeds. Sow the seeds in boxes or pots filled 
with light sandy soil, in March or early in April; cover the seeds 
lightly with sandy leaf -mold, and water thoroughly. Place in 
a cold frame and shade lightly during hot sunshine imtil the 
seeds have germinated ; as soon as they have made four leaflet,s 
remove the sash from the frame and replace it with a lathed 
cover to protect the seedlings from strong simshine and also 
from the ravages of birds. When the plants are two inches high, 
transplant them into boxes about four and one-half inches deep 
filled with good strong loam, planting them about three inches 
apart. Return them to a situation similar to the one from which 





they were taken; give them a good watering and keep them 
shaded during strong simshine for a few days, afterwards gradu- 
ally exposing them to the open air. Plant them, in March or 
April, where they are to remain. 


The Eugenias belong to the Myrtle family and are very desir- 
able shrubs or small trees, grow- 
ing to the height of from twenty- 
five to thirty feet. They have a 
handsome pyramidal habit of 
growth, their myrtle-like leaves 
being tinted with pink in their 
growing state. They give a very 
good efiFect in the shrubbery, 
and, when covered with their 
white myrtle-like flowers, or 
later with their reddish globular- 
shaped fruit, make handsome 
ornaments in our grounds. Eu- 
genia myrt folia and Eugenia Eugenia latifoiia. 

Smithiana (or Eugenia latifolia as it is sometimes named) are the 
best varieties for this coast. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in sandy soil in a cold frame, 
in October, or by seeds sown in early Spring, also in a cold frame. 
Cover the seeds to the depth of one-sixteenth of an inch. 

EuGNYMUS {Spindle-Tree) 

A genus of evergreen or deciduous trees and shrubs, natives 
of Europe, Asia, Japan and the United States, with opposite 
leaves and small inconspicuous flowers. All are hardy in Cali- 
fornia and of easy growth, standing the harsh winds of the coast 



counties very well and enduring rough treatment of every kind 
better than most of our common shrubs do. Some of the varie- 
gated kinds are considered to be among our most ornamental 

Euon>Tnus grandiflorus grows to the height of twenty feet. 

Euonymus Japonica is the most attractive of the species, 
being smooth-leaved, of good habit and carrying no dust, with 
small white flowers, and is also very handsome in the Fall and 
Winter when covered with its bright-red berries. It is exceed- 
ingly effective when grouped about the margins of the lawn or 
as a background for more delicate shrubs, also when massed with 
Laurel, Pittosporum, Veronica and others. There are many 
varieties of this useful and ornamental shrub. Euonymus 
Japonica aurea, Euonymus Japonica argentea and Euonymus 
Japonica Due de Anjou are all very desirable. 

Euonymus latifolia, the broad-leaved Euonymus, is another 
of the type which should be in every collection as should also 
be its varieties with their gold or silver variegated leaves. 

Propagate by cuttings of the last season's growth inserted, 
in October, in sandy soil, or by seeds sown one-eighth of an inch 
deep in early Spring; in either case place in a cold frame. 


This shrub is a native of North China, belonging to the 
Spiraeas, and is sometimes named Spiraea grandiflora. Its habit 
of growth resembles the Philadelphus and it should group well 
with the members of that family. It opens its handsome white 
clusters early in June, remaining in flower about one month. 

Propagate by cuttings of the ripe wood placed in sandy soil 
in the open border in November, or by suckers formed at the base 
of the plants in Winter, or by layers in the Fall, or by seeds sown 
one-eighth of an inch deep in the open ground as soon as ripe in 
the Fall. 




An evergreen heath-like shrub 
of a stiff, erect habit of growth 
and bearing a profusion of small fun- 
nel-shaped flowers. It should be 
pruned back within a few inches of 
the previous year's growth as soon as 
the flowering season is over, this treat- 
ment insuring for the plant a much 
better shape than if it were allowed 
to take its natural habit of growth. 

Propagate by cuttings of half-ripe 
wood placed in a cold frame in Sep- 
tember or early in October or in early 
Spring before growth commences. Fabiana. 

Fagus sylvatica (Beech) 

The Beech in the Eastern States and in Europe is a noble 
symmetrical tree requiring very little attention and growing in 
almost any soil which is well drained. Here in California it re- 
quires good shelter and a fairly good soil, well drained. It must 
have abundant moisture, doing well on the border of the lawn 
or close to a pond or water course. 

There are several varieties, the purple-leaved variety appear- 
mg to be the best adapted to this climate. It is not advisable to 
attempt propagation in this State. 


A genus of handsomely leaved plants belon^ng to the Aralia 
family, a name by which this genus is often known. They like 
a well-sheltered situation protected from strong winds, where, 
if given good soil and plenty of moisture, they form handsome 



objects, their large palmated shining green leaves creating a fine 
tropical efiFect. Fatsia papyrifera produces the rice paper used 
in oriental countries for making artificial flowers. 

Fatsia Japonica and its variegated varieties are also ver\' 
useful in tropical gardening, but as they are of slower growth and 
of dwarf habit should be planted near the margins of groups. 

Another variety, Fatsia horrida, a native of the State of 
Washington, is of more spreading habit and has large palmated 
leaves three or more feet in width. Its stem is often too weak to 
sustain its large, heavy leaves and should be supported by a 
strong stake until its fourth or fifth year. This variety is thickly 
covered with stout sharp spines. 

Propagate by cuttings of the root, an inch or more in length, 
placed in heat in early Spring, or by suckers growing from the 
base of the crown in Winter or early Spring. 

Ficus {Rubber Tree) 

The fig family contains many highly ornamental evergreen 
and deciduous trees. Ficus elastica is a fine tree for the open 
ground and as a pot plant for the decoration of the pallor or 
sitting room, while, as a veranda plant, few are more hardy or 
give better satisfaction, its long leather>'^ smooth shiny green 
leaves and upright stately habit making it a generally favorite 
plant for garden and indoor decoration. It grows well in any 
good garden soil provided it is given a sheltered spot and plenty 
of water. 

Some fine specimens of Ficus are to be seen in Southern 
California and also in San Francisco, Oakland, San Rafael and 
San Mateo, a number of these being over forty feet high and 
generally enjoying vigorous health. 

Propagate, in the early Spring, by cuttings taken from plants 
grown under glass; insert them in sandy soil in strong moist 
heat. If the cuttings are taken from the open ground, place them 
in a cold frame until they callous ; they should then be taken from 

[ io8 ] 

Ficus elutica. 


the cold frame and put in a house with a temperature of sixty 
degrees Fahrenheit where they will soon root. 

Fraxinus (Ash) 

The Ash is one of our favorite ornamental trees. It has long 
compound leaves and inconspicuous flowers; it loves good deep 
moist soil and a sheltered situation, the bank of a creek being its 
favorite haunt. The weeping varieties of Fraxinus excelsior 
make very handsome specimens for the lawn. 

In the Fall, propagate by seeds sown as soon as ripe one- 
quarter of an inch deep in a sandy soil. When the young plants, 
in the early Spring, are from six to twelve inches high, plant 
them in nurserj" rows about six inches apart in the rows and with 
two feet between the rows. Replant them in their permanent 
quarters when they are from four to six feet in height. 

Fraxinus excelsior. 



The weeping varieties are propagated by grafting on the 
common Ash in early Spring. To get good specimens they should 
be grafted on strong young saplings at a height of from twelve 
to twenty feet, thus having plenty of height so that the pendulous 
limbs may easily be spread out the required arbor width. 


The Gardenia is a genus comprising many species, most of 
which are natives of Asia. All are evergreen small shrubs with 
sweet-scented white or yellow 
flowers, the single varieties hav- 
ing funnel-shaped flowers. The 
double-flowering varieties are, 
however, the most desirable, 
some of them being as double 
as a Camellia and bearing flowers 
which are four inches in 

The Gardenias should be 
planted in every garden, how- 
ever small, as they form compact 
little bushes while their beautiful 
GaTdenia. fragrant white flowers make a 

handsome decoration. The climate of Oakland and of the 
South as far as San Diego suits them admirably. They delight 
in a warm sheltered situation and plenty of water at the roots 
during Summer. Gardenia Fortuni and Gardenia radicans 
major are the varieties best suited to the conditions of California. 
Any good light loam, if well drained, will suffice them for soil 

Propagate by cuttings of half-ripe wood placed in a cold 
frame, in August, in soil composed of half well-decomposed leaf- 
mold and half silver-sand. After putting in the cuttings, the 
frame should, for two weeks, be shaded during sunshine. 



A large genus of free-flowering shrubs of compact, bushy 
habit, having flowers pea-shaped and mostly yellow in color, 
growing freely in any garden soil (preferably light and sandy) 
and requiring no artificial irrigation after the first year. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in Spring, one-quarter of an inch 
deep in the open ground, or in boxes in cold frame; when the 
seedlings are from four to six inches high, prick them out in 
boxes or in the open groimd. Plant them in permanent quarters 
when they are from twelve to eighteen inches high; water them 
during the first year after planting. All are worthy a place in 
the pleasure-ground. 

Ginkgo {Maidenhair-Tree) 

The Maidenhair-tree is a native of North China and is named 
Maidenhair-tree from the form of its leaflets, these being shaped 
like the leaflets of the Adiantum fern. It has an upright open 
habit and has a distinctly handsome appearance in any landscape 
while it also makes a good street tree. 

There are several handsome varieties including the deeply- 
cut leaved Ginkgo biloba laciniata and a weeping form. Ginkgo 
biloba pendula. 

Propagate by seeds sown, as soon as ripe, one-quarter of an 
inch deep in the open ground. Plant them in permanent site, 
when they are from six to ten feet high, in good deep well-drained 

Gleditschia {Honey Locust) 

A handsome spreading tree with pinnate and tripinnate 
leaves on the same plant, deciduous, light-green in color and of 
graceful habit, the branches being crowded (especially on the 
lower limbs) with strong sharp spines. Its seeds are in long 
fleshy pods about two inches in width by fifteen inches in length, 



each pod containing a dozen seeds. The pulpy portion of the 
pod is sweet when fresh, hence the name "Honey Locust." It 
is a very desirable tree, growing in any ordinary good soil, and 
should make a good street tree, as, on account of its spine-covered 
branches, boys would fight shy of climbing its trunk. 

There are several species of the genus all worthy of a place 
in the pleasure-ground. The Japanese and its varieties purpurea 
and coccinea, the Chinese, the water locust (Gleditschia aquatica) 
and several other kinds are all very desirable. 

Propagate, by seeds, in January; as the shells of the seeds 
are exceedingly hard, soak them in hot water for a few hours 
before sowing. Plant the seeds about an inch deep in the open 
ground ; leave them in the seed-bed for one year when they should 
be planted in nursery rows. Plant them in permanent quarters 
when they are from six to fifteen feet high. 


A genus of elegant trees and shrubs mostly natives of the 
Australian group, many of the species having leaves as beauti- 
fully cut as a fern. According to Eastern and European authori- 
ties they grow only five or six feet high, whereas here in Cali- 
fornia they reach a height of from forty to fifty feet with a 
diameter of stem of over a foot. Grevillea robusta, the most 
commonly grown species, is very ornamental, and when in bloom 
is a striking object in the landscape with its great trusses of 
orange-red flowers set among its fern-like foliage. It grows freely 
in any ordinary good soil and requires very little water. Grevillea 
fasciculata, Grevillea juniperina, Grevillea Thelemanniana, 
Grevillea saligna, the scarlet-blooming Grevillea punicea, and 
the purple-flowering Grevillea vestita should be seen in our gar- 
dens more frequently than they are and well repay any care and 
attention bestowed upon them. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in Spring, one-quarter of an inch 



deep in sandy soil in a warm greenhouse, or by cuttings planted, 
in September, in a cool frame shaded from strong sunshine ; grow 
them in pots until they are required for planting in the open 

Gymnocladus {Kentucky Co fee-Tree) 

A lofty tree, native of the Eastern States from Kentucky to 
Canada, receiving its name from the seeds being used by early 
settlers as a substitute for coflFee. 

This tree is a favorite shade tree both in the East and in 
Europe and should thrive better here than it seems to have done 
in many places. It requires a shady sheltered situation and a 
soft moist soil. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-quarter of an inch deep in the 
open ground as soon as ripe in the Fall. 


A large Australian genus comprising many species with 
needle-like foliage and bottle-brush flowers. A few assume tree 
form but most of them are low-growing shrubs. All are attractive 
when in bloom, but, on account of their hard, needle-like leaves 
and persistent seed vessels, are not very desirable except in large 

Propagate by seeds .own one-sixteenth of an inch deep, in 
heat, in early Spring, or by cuttings of the ripe wood placed in a 
cold frame in September and potted as growth requires; keep 
them in pots until required for planting in permanent situations. 


A genus of pretty shrubs containing half a dozen species, 
natives of the Eastern States and Japan and one from China. 
The Japanese Halesia hispida does especially well, growing 
freely and blooming abundantly, its clusters of pure white 



snowdrop-like flowers together with its semi-pendulous habit of 
growth making it a good addition to the shrubbery. The Hale- 
sias deUght in a light rich sandy soil and a sheltered situation. 

Propagate by layers in the open ground, and also by cuttings 
of the roots placed in a cold frame in September. 


Highly decorative, evergreen and deciduous shrubs. Hydran- 
gea hortensis, the most easily grown of any of the species, is a 
universal favorite, flowering, as it often does, ten months of the 
year, its handsome foUage and great trusses of pink, white or 
purple sterile flowers giving a fine effect. It does best in a semi- 
shaded situation in light sandy moist soil. If extra large panicles 
of flowers are desired, cut the shoots back to within a foot of the 
groimd and thin the remainder of the flower stems to not over 
six, manure them heavily and water them freely; the result will 
be enormously large heads requiring stout stakes to support them. 
It also makes an excellent vase plant for the porch or veranda, 
the shade and shelter of the veranda being a very suitable light 
for its development. 

Hydrangea paniculata is a valuable shrubby species for the 
decorating of the shrubbery, having smaller leaves than the pre- 
ceding and panicles also smaller and of a more pointed shape. 
It requires a sunny warm situation and all the light possible. 

There are many varieties of the Hortensia, notably Dr. Hogg 
with pure white flowfers, and Hortensia Japonica with blue 
flowers. Some have variegated foliage. 

All are easily propagated by ordinary cuttings placed in sandy 
soil in a cool frame in October. 

Hymenosporum flavum 

This handsome evergreen tree is a native of Australia, has 
smooth glossy bright, light-green leaves and bears masses of 


tubular-shaped yellow flowers which have a strong sweet odor 
scenting the atmosphere for an area of a hundred yards. It grows 
freely in any good garden soil and should be used extensively in 
planting large grounds. 

Propagation is by cuttings placed in a cold frame, during 
October, in light sandy leaf-mold. It may also be propagated 
by seeds sown in Spring in a frame, the seeds to be covered to 
the depth of a quarter of an inch. 


A genus of hardy, low-growing shrubs generally with yellow 
flowers, mostly natives of 
Southern Europe and the 
United States. All are of 
easy culture, growing freely 
in any good garden soil. 
Hypericum delights in a 
shady nook under the shel- 
ter of tall shrubs for which 
it makes an excellent under- 
growth or carpet, thickly 
covering the surface of the 

ground with its foliage and Hypericum, 

bright-yellow flowers. There are many fine species, such as H. 
Moserianum, H. Androsaemum, H. patulum, etc., well deserving 
a place in the shrubbery. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in a cold frame in Autumn; 
shade them for the first few days, and, when they are rooted, 
plant them in nursery rows until wanted. 

Ilex {Holly) 

A genus of one hundred and fifty species, evergreen and de- 
ciduous. It is highly ornamental, its stately habit of growth 



and its bright glossy green, undulate, prickly leaves making it 
one of the most popular of shrubs. When covered with a heavy 
crop of its bright crimson berries, it is exceedingly eflFective in 
the garden from November to early Spring. 

There are many varieties of the different species which are 
highly ornamental ; some of them, with variegated leaves, should 
be in every collection however small. The Holly stands pruning 
into almost any shape and makes an excellent hedge though of 
slow growth, it taking seven or eight years to grow a holly hedge 
five feet in height, but from its first appearance above ground it 
is pleasing and should be more frequently used for this purpose. 

The Holly delights in a semi-shaded spot in a sheltered place, 
away from harsh winds and strong sunshine, and loves moisture 
at the root during the growing season. 

Ilex opaca, the Southern Holly, ought to be seen more com- 
monly than it is, and should stand our dry Summers much better 
than the European or Japanese species. 

Propagate by seeds sown in the open ground. As soon as the 
seeds are ripe, place them in wet sand for the Winter, and, when 
the fleshy pulp is completely rotted, sow them in drills or beds 
and cover them with one-half inch of light soil ; shade the yoimg 
seedlings with branches for the first year; when the seedlings 
are four inches high, transplant them into nursery rows one foot 
apart; transplant them at least every two years until wanted. 
The variegated varieties can be propagated only by grafting. 
This should be done in early Spring before growth commences, 
using seedlings of the common Holly as a stock. 


A genus of leguminous shrubs and herbs with purple, rose 
or white flowers, natives of Australia and the United States and 
at least one species indigenous to California. They grow in 
sandy garden soil. 

I "81 




To get the best results, prune them back, in February, rather 
severely so as to encourage the forming of young wood, on 
which the fmest flowers are produced. Of the many species, aus- 
tralis, decora and tinctoria will be found the best for the Coast. 

Propagate, in Spring, by seeds or cuttings. Cover the seeds 
to the depth of one-sixteenth of an inch. 


A small genus containing about fifteen species of tall shrubs 
with slender stems, having opposite 
entire leaves and long tubular-shaped 
flowers growing in pendulous bunches 
of ten or a dozen. Flowering late in 
the Fall, they make a welcome addition 
to our collection of flowering shrubs. 
The best proven species are lochroma 
grandiflora from Peru, lochroma lan- 
ceolata a native of Chile and lochroma 
tubulosa from Central America. They 
should be grown in a sheltered situa- 
tion and given plenty of manure and 

Propagate by cuttings in early 
Fall; shade from direct sun. 

lochroma tubulosa. 


Itea Virginica is the only species of this genus widely grown 
in California. There are at least four other species which would 
make worthy additions to any shrubbery. As most of them flower 
late in the Summer, a season of the year when few shrubs are in 
bloom, they should be seen in our gardens more commonly than 
they are. 



The Iteas thrive best in a moist sheltered situation in light 
sandy loam. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-eighth of an inch deep in 
Spring, or by suckers taken, in Winter, from the base of old estab- 
lished plants or by layers in July. 


This beautiful tree, which gives such splendid effects in the 
warmer portions of this State, is a native of Brazil and should, to 
do well, be given generous treatment and a warm situation away 
from strong winds. It grows well in any garden soil which is 
not too stiff and heavy. 

The Jacaranda is propagated by means of cuttings placed 
in a cold frame, during August, in soil composed of one-half sand 
and one-half leaf-mold. The cuttings should be shaded during 
strong sunshine until they form roots, and, when rooted, they 
should be planted in small pots and afterwards given larger pots 
as required. 


The Wahiut and Butternut belong to this genus, both being 
noble park trees forming massive straight tnmks and wide-spread- 
ing branches, while their handsome, pinnate, glossy leaves add 
much to their attractive appearance. There are several species 
including Juglans regia (the English Walnut), Juglans cinerea 
(Butternut), Juglans nigra (the Eastern Black Walnut), Jug- 
lans Califomica and the Japanese species, Juglans Sieboldiana. 
All form grand park trees requiring considerable space for their 
proper growth and development as well as deep well-drained 
soil and sheltered situations. 

Propagate by seeds planted, in Winter or early Spring, one 
inch deep in nursery rows. Transplant the seedlings to their 
permanent quarters when they are not more than two years old. 



JUNiPERUS (Juniper) 

Ornamental evergreen trees or shrubs with needle or scale- 
like leaves set thickly on the stems or branches, the flowers being 
inconspicuous and the fruit a small 
cone-like berry. All are perfectly 
hardy in California, being mostly 
natives of temperate climates. The 
genus contains species with low- 
spreading habit of growth, well 
adapted for covering rocky ledges 
or forming groundwork for hiding 
bare ground under large trees; 
some having a stiff pyramidal habit 
are much used in formal gardening, 
while others make fine single speci- 
mens on the lawn or planted in 

groups about large pleasure- Junipenu Chinensli. 


The best of the species with bushy habit are Juniperus Chin- 
ensis, Jimiperus commimis, Jimipenis Califomica, Juniperus 
Suecica, Jimiperus Virginiana, Juniperus Bermudiana, and 
Juniperus Fortunis. There are also many varieties of each of the 
species, a number of which are very attractive. The best of the 
creeping species are Juniperus sabina, Juniperus procumbens and 
their varieties, many of which have variegated leaves. 

Propagate, in October, by cuttings in sandy soil in a cold 
frame; when they are rooted in Spring transplant them about 
two inches apart into boxes and give them the room their growth 
requires. They may also be propagated by seeds sown one six- 
teenth of an inch deep in the open ground in Spring, the seeds 
preferring a shady situation. 




Slender-branched deciduous twiggy shrubs with bright light- 
green leaves and bright-yellow flowers. Being among our earli- 
est Spring-flowering shrubs they are much in demand and should 
be seen in every garden however small. The double-flowering 
variety has the prettier flowers, but the single-flowered is the 
more elegant in habit and keeps in flower for a much longer 
period than the double-flowering variety. 

Propagate by cuttings in the Fall or by division of the roots 
in early Spring. 


A small handsome deciduous tree from north China, with a 
spreading, irregular habit of growth. It thrives best in good soil 
and a sheltered situation where its long panicles of yellow blos- 
soms are very attractive. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in a cold frame in early Fall. 

Laburnum {Golden Chain) 

Ornamental shrubs or small trees with trifoliate leaves and 
pendulous racemes of pea-shaped flowers. They are all highly 
ornamental and free-flowering and grow in any garden soil, but 
in sunny California seem to desire a shady situation. Like many 
deciduous trees they are liable to be attacked by the grey fungus 
which has a tendency to harden and tighten the bark; when 
this is the case, spray them in Winter with lye mixture. 

The following are the best varieties of this very beautiful 
Spring- flowering tree: — Laburnum vulgare. Laburnum vulgare 
aureum (golden-yellow leaves), Laburnum vulgare involutum. 
Laburnum vulgare quercifolium and Laburnum vulgare Watereri. 
A species with purple flowers named Laburnum Adami, is also 
well worthy of a place in any collection. 



Propagate by seeds sown one quarter of an inch deep in the 
open ground in early Spring; leave them in the seed-bed one 
year and then transplant them to nursery rows where they should 
remain until large enough to be planted out. 

Lagerstrcemia {Crape Myrtle) 

A strong-growing free-flowering deciduous shrub producing 
an abundance of soft-fringed flowers during the Summer months. 
The Crape Myrtle delights in a Ught rich soil and a warm sunny 
situation, the climate of San Francisco being too cold for this 
most beautiful shrub, so it is not advisable to plant it in that 
neighborhood, but in the interior of the State and in southern 
counties it should be in every yard. ■ 

Propagate by cuttings in the early Fall; grow them in pots 
until they are ready to be planted out. 


A large genus of evergreen and deciduous shrubs belonging 
to the Verbena family. Grow- 
ing freely in any garden soil and 
of a rambling habit of growth, 
it is well adapted for forming 
undergrowth for filling in open 
spaces between upright grow- 
ing shrubs or for forming thick- 
ets under deciduous trees. 

It also is very useful as a 
covering for steep banks where 
few plants of a shrubby charac- 
ter are successful. It requires 
very little artificial watering. 

Propagate by cuttings in 


Lasiandra (Pleroma) 

The Lasiandra is another 

of the Brazilian introductions 
which has surprised many culti- 
vators by doing so well out of 
doors in our State. In Europe 
and in the Eastern states, it is 
treated as a hothouse plant and 
given temperature strictly tropi- 
cal, but here in California it 
grows well and flowers splen- 
didly, blooming in the open air 
even in San Francisco from De- 
cember until June. It requires 
a sheltered situation and a light 
sandy soil, 

Lasiandra macrantha. There are many varieties of 

this beautiful shrub but Lasiandra macrantha will be found the 
best adapted for growing in this State. 

Propagate by cuttings placed, in July or August, in a cold 
frame in soil composed of sand and leaf-mold in equal pro- 

Laurus camphora (Camphor-Tree) 

This handsome evergreen is a native of Japan and produces 
the camphor of commerce. It has a close pyramidal or oval- 
shaped head with laurel-like leaves, the young leaves having a 
pink tint which gives it a striking appearance in the landscape. 
In the Southern and warmer portions of the State it makes a 
very good sidewalk tree. 

Propagate, in March, by seeds sown one-eighth of an inch 
deep, or by cuttings, also in March, put into cutting-mixture, 
composed of half sand and half leaf-mold; place in a cold frame 



until the cuttings are calloused and give gentle bottom heat until 

Laukus Nobilis 

The Laurus nobilis is a handsome evergreen hardy tree, a 
native of Southern Europe. It has dark-green, oblong, pointed 
leaves, is of an upright habit and grows to the height of about 
forty feet. 

Propagate by cuttings inserted in sand in a cold frame, in 


This handsome member of the Myrtle family is one of our 
most popular shrubs, growing 
vigorously in the poorest sand 
and in the most exposed situa- 
tion. It also is one of the best 
shrubs for seaside planting. It 
is of a semi-pendulous graceful 
habit, and, when covered with 
its long sprays of marble-white 
flowers, makes a grand effect in 
the landscape. Leptospermum 
laevigatum is the best of the 

Propagate by seeds sown one- 
eighth of an inch deep in Spring; Leptospennum. 
prick them off about three inches apart in boxes, and plant them 
out in their permanent quarters when they are a foot high. 



Leucadendron {Silver Tree) 

This is the celebrated Silver Tree of South Africa. In the 
Cape of Good Hope it grows to a height of about thirty feet. 
It gets its name from its leaves which are of a soft silvery-white 
color and densely covered with white silky hairs. It does well 
in light loam and must have a warm sheltered situation where it 
becomes, when in health, a very striking object. Leucadendron 
argenteum, the best of the species, should be more commonly 
seen as it forms a^ handsome tree. 

Propagate by seeds secured from South Africa; plant them 
one quarter of an inch deep as soon as received from their native 
locality; start them in a warm greenhouse and be very careful 
not to overwater them. 

LiBOCEDRUS {Incense Cedar) 

A genus comprising eight species; two are natives of New Zea- 
land, one of California, two of 
Chile, one of Japan, one of China, 
and one of New Caledonia. Our 
native species, Libocedrus decur- 
rens is of a densely-branched habit 
of growth and rather formal in 
outline. Libocedrus Chilensis is 
of the same habit but has leaves 
of a light glaucous green. Libo- 
cedrus Doniana, the New Zea- 
land species, is also rather stiff and 
formal in habit but differs from 
the Chilean species in having 
Ubocedrws decurreiw. bright-green leaves. All are of 

easy growth and thrive in our climate if given shelter and well- 
drained soil. 


Propagate by seeds sown in Spring, one-quarter of an inch 
deep in light sandy soil; protect them from hot sun until they 
are one inch high when they may be planted in nursery beds out 
of doors. 

LiGUSTHUM (Privet) 

This genus contains about twenty-five species of ornamental, 
hardy, deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees indigenous 
to Europe, temperate Asia and 
Australia. They are easily cul- 
tivated, will grow in any good 
garden soil and make excellent 
subjects for grouping in the 
pleasure-garden. They flower 
freely and remain in bloom for 
several months. The Japanese 
species Ligustrum Ibota, Ligu- 
strum Japonicum, Ligustrum lu- 
cidum and Ligustrum ovalifol- 
ium, are among the best and 
should be used freely in planting 

large grounds. Ligustrum ovali- Ligustrum japonicum. 

folium and Ligustrum Japonicum make good hedge plants. 

Propagate by cuttings in the Fall, or by seeds sown in open 
ground in Spring. Cover the seeds to the depth of one-eighth 
of an inch. 

LiQuiDAMBAR (Sweet Gum) 

A small genus of about four species of which the North 

American species Liquidambar Styraciflua is the best. It has a 

maple-like leaf, grows to the height of about sixty feet, and, 

when late in the Fall it has taken on its Autumn tints, it has a 

1 129] 


very striking appearance. Its cork-like barked branches give it 
a picturesque and interesting character, suitable for informal 
planting. Plant in low sheltered situations in soft moist soil 
and give plenty of water during the growing season. 

Propagate by seeds sown in Spring in open ground, covered 
to the depth of one-quarter of an inch. 

LiRiODENDRON (TtUip'Tree) 

The Tulip-tree, one of the most desirable of deciduous trees, 
is of pyramidal habit with fiddle-shaped leaves and tulip-shaped 
flowers. It makes a handsome avenue tree, being clean of stem 
and of smooth foliage, turning bright-yellow in the Fall. It 
must have rich bottom 'and and a sheltered situation to do well. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in the Fall or as soon as ripe, in the 
open ground. Cover the seeds to the depth of one-quarter of 
an inch. 


A handsome evergreen tree found only in the islands of 
Santa Barbara channel. In Santa Cruz Island it grows to the 
height of sixty feet. This tree should make an excellent addi- 
tion to our coast collection, and, as it is a rapid grower of good 
habit and has a bright grass-green leaf, should be planted ex- 

Propagate by cuttings placed in sand in cool frame in October. 



Magnolia * 

A highly ornamental genus of about twenty species of ever- 
green or deciduous trees and shrubs. The evergreen Magnolia 
grandiflora with its mas- 
sive leaves and large 
white fragrant flowers 
is well adapted for plant- 
ing either as single speci- 
mens on the lawn or in 
large or small groups. 
The deciduous species, 
Magnolia acuminata, is 
a vigorous-growing lofty 
tree with spreading 

branches. Magnolia tri- Magnolia rtdlato. 

petala is another strong vigorous grower which should be seen 
more often. Besides those of tree form, many species are low- 
growing, shrubby and very floriferous, some of them blooming in 
early Spring before they unfold their leaves. These include Mag- 
nolia conspicua and its varieties Magnolia Soulangeana, Magnolia 
obovata, Magnoha parviflora and Magnolia stellata. The ba- 
nana odor of the flower of Magnolia moschata is so powerful that 
one or two flowers will perfume a whole house. Magnolias de- 
light in a warm, sheltered situation, a rich sedimentary loam soil 
and plenty of water during the growing season. If given these 
conditions they will well repay any care bestowed on them. 

Propagate,' about September, by layers or by sowing the 
seeds, as soon as ripe, one-quarter of an inch deep in pots of 
sandy leaf-mold under glass. When the young seedlings are 
three inches high, pot them singly in three-inch pots and shade 
them for a few days after which they may be given air and full 



•• Maytenus 

A genus of evergreen trees or shrubs mostly natives of Chile, 
of an upright habit of growth, with myrtle-iike leaves, forming 
very elegant and graceful shrubs with small white, yellow or red 
flowers. Maytenus boaria (with white flowers) and Maytenus 
Chilensis (bearing greenish-yellow flowers) are the most desir- 
able species. 

They thrive in any garden soil and in any situation, being 
particularly adapted for growing in the Southern part of Cali- 
fornia, while they also do well in San Francisco and neighbor- 

Propagate by cuttings in early Fall. 


A genus comprising about one hundred species of mostly 
evergreen shrubs or trees, na- 
tives of Australia. All have 
black stems and white-barked 
branches. They are all highly 
ornamental and graceful in 
habit, thrive m poor soil and 
require only a moderate supply 
of water, — indeed, if well-cul- 
tivated requiring no artificial 
irrigation whatever. 

Melaleuca decussata, Mela- 
leuca fulgens and Melaleuca 
Leucadendron will be foimd 
Melaleuca Leucadendron. ^^^^^g ^^ ^^^ gp^^j^g f^,^ g^^. 

eral cultivation. 

Propagate by cuttings of half-ripe wood in Summer or by 
seeds sown in March or April. Cover the seeds lightly. 

(■32 1 

Melaleuca Leucadendron. 


Meua Azedarach {Umbrella Tree) 

The Umbrella tree is one of the most popular shade trees in 
California, being a rapid grower and of easy propagation, grow- 
ing freely from seed. Its bright-green foliage, which it carries 
until late in the season, together with its long sprays of fragrant 
lilac-colored blossoms make it a general favorite through the 

Me^iliu Japonlca. 

warmer districts of the State, where it does exceedingly well ex- 
cepting very close to the coast. There the fresh sea-wind whips 
the long pinnate leaves from the exposed side, destroying its 
symmetry and formal habit. 

Propagate by seeds sown, one-quarter of an inch deep, in the 
Fall; leave them one year in seed-bed and then transplant them 
into nursery rows where they should be allowed to remain until 
they are large enough to be planted in permanent quarters. 



Melianthus major 

The Melianthus is a shrub especially effective in large grounds 
where fine subtropical effects are desired, as its graceful habit 
and large glaucous leaves make it very desirable for this purpose. 

This shrub is propagated by cuttings which should be placed 
in a cold frame, during September or October, in soil composed 
of sand and leaf-mold in equal proportions. 

Mespilus (Medlar) 

The Medlar, although considered more a fruit than an orna- 
mental tree, is nevertheless frequently grown as the latter. This 
is especially so in the case of the Japanese species which has 
large handsome leaves and forms a very fine shade tree. Any 
good garden soil is suitable for growing the Medlar. 

Propagation of this tree is by means of seeds which should 
be sown during Spring in a cold frame. The seeds should be 
covered to the depth of a quarter of an inch. 

A genus of about eighteen species natives of the Pacific Islands, 
New Zealand and New South 
Wales, mostly shrubby in habit, 
having narrow pointed leaves and 
showy flowers, growing well in any 
garden soil and requiring no arti- 
ficial watering where the ground 
is well cultivated and kept clear of 

Propagate by cuttings in early 
Fall or by seeds sown, in Spring, 
one-quarter of an inch deep in a 
cold frame. When the seedlings 
are one inch high, transplant them 
Metroridenx robusta. two inches apart in boxes. 



MoRUS Nigra {Mulberry) 

The Mulberry is cultivated chiefly for feeding the silkworm. 
It grows to the height of from twenty to sixty feet, having large 
heart-shaped leaves and spreading habit; it should be given 
fairly good soil and a sheltered situation. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in open ground late in the Fall 

after the leaves have dropped, or by seeds sown in Spring. Cover 

the seeds to the depth of one-quarter of an inch. The following 

Spring transplant them one foot from each other into nursery 

rows two feet apart. 


This genus contains only a few species, one indigenous to 
California, one to Europe, two to Japan and one to Canada. It 
grows to a height of sometimes forty feet, is bush-like in habit, 
has a willow-like bright-green leaf and bears a purple or red 
fruit. It delights in a Ught sandy soil in a sheltered situation 
with plenty of moisture, preferably the margin of a lake or 

Propagate by seeds sown one-eighth of an inch deep in 
Spring, or by cuttings placed in the open ground in October. 

Myrtus {Myrtle) 

The Myrtle is an extensive genus comprising over one hun- 
dred species, mostly natives of Australia, South America and 
Southern Europe. The common species (Myrtus communis) is 
one of our most popular and best known shrubs, its fragrant 
leaves and pretty white flowers making it a general favorite. 

There are many handsome species, including Myrtus buUata 
(which grows from ten to twenty feet high) and Myrtus apiculata. 

It is of easy culture and grows well in any soil not too heavy, 
being readily propagated by cuttings placed in sandy leaf-mold 
in a cold frame in early Fall, or by seeds sown, in Spring, one 
eighth of an inch deep in a cold frame. 



This genus contains but a 
single species, the elegant Nan- 
dina domestica. It is of upright 
habit with compoimd leaves 
which in the young state are 
beautifully tinted with pink; 
the fruit is oval in shape and 
about the size of a large pea. It 
is good for small grouping. 

Propagate by division of the 
roots in early Spring and by 
seeds sown in Spring one-quarter 
of an inch deep in a cold frame. 

Nandina dometUca. 

Nerium (Oleander) 

A small genus of very ornamental evergreen flowering shrubs 
of erect habit, natives of the Mediterranean regions. In the 
warmer districts of the State the Oleander is a general favorite 
on account of its easy culture and its generous long-continued 
supply of gaily-colored flowers. Close to the coast, although 
the Oleander grows to wood well enough, it does not flower 
freely, therefore it is not recommended as a coast shrub or for 
planting in San Francisco except against a wall facing the South. 

Propagate by cuttings of ripe wood placed, about April, in 
sandy leaf-mold in a warm propagating house; as soon as they 
are rooted, pot them singly in three-inch pots and give them room 
as required. 


A large genus mostly Australian. Some of them make beau- 
tiful bushes and should be more often seen. They succeed in 



any good soil and require little water if given thorough culti- 
vation. The best flowering kinds are Olearia Forsteri, Olearia 
Gunniana and Olearia Haastii. 

Propagate by cuttings of half-ripe wood inserted, in October, 
in sandy leaf-mold, placed in a cold frame, and kept close and 
shaded from hot simshine for two weeks. 

Olea EuROPiEA (Olive) 

What the Elm or the Oak is to Northern Europe, what the 
Conifers are to the Moimtains of California, the Ohve is to Italy, 
where it is grown b6th for its oil and as an ornamental tree. As 
a feature of the landscape it is very effective, its grey-green foli- 
age and its soft willow-like habit fitting it well for grouping if 
allowed to grow naturally and not subjected to the pruning- 

It grows in any soil, even on a rocky hillside where it pro- 
duces fine effects without irrigation. 

Propagate, in Spring, by cuttings of either yoimg or old wood, 
or by se^ds sown one-half inch deep in the open groimd; keep 
them in the nursery until well established. 


So named on account of the fragrance of its flowers. There 
are several species (one American), the Japanese being the most 

Osmanthus aquifolium has handsome holly-like leaves, is 
evergreen and of good habit, bearing white flowers. Osmanthus 
fragrans has entire, elliptic-shaped leaves and bears yellow 

Propagate by cuttings set in a cold frame in the early Fall. 
The Osmanthus is not particular as to soil, but prefers a warm 
situation and partial shade from noonday sun. 




This beautiful Mexican shrub, with its feathery drooping 
branches and yellow flowers, is becoming a general favorite in 
all of our gardens where a collection of fine shrubs is aimed at. 

Propagate by seeds sown as soon as ripe, in a warm green- 
house or frame; cover the seeds with a quarter of an inch of 
soil. The seedlings should be transplanted to the open groimd 
when they are six inches in height. 


Ornamental deciduous trees with catalpa-like leaves and fox- 
glove-like flowers, well adapted, when young, to give semi- 
tropical broad-leaved effects, and, in well-sheltered situations and 
good soil, making a good street tree. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in Spring, one-quarter of an inch 
deep in the open ground in light rich soil. 

Philadelphus (Mock Orange) 

Ornamental deciduous shrubs, with opposite leaves and white 
flowers in terminal racemes on short branches appearing in May 
and on until July. They are well 
adapted for shrubbery imdergrowth, 
liking partial shade. When exposed to 
the full sun, the flowers are smaller and 
lack the delicate tinting of those grown in 
half shade. Any fair garden soil will 
suit them as they are of easy culture. 
Pnme the bushes as soon as the flowers 
fade, to encourage the making of strong 
young shoots to take the place of those 
cut, as it is on the previous year's wood 
that they flower. 

There are several species worthy of 
PhiUdeiphu. ^ pi^^^^ including Philadelphus coronar- 



ius, Philadelphus Gordonianus, Philadelphus grandiflorus and 
others of which some varieties have double flowers and some 
variegated foliage. 

Propagate by cuttings of ripe wood placed in sandy soil in 
the open groimd in November or as soon as the leaves fall. 


A genus comprising only four species, all evergreen and orna- 
mental, natives of the Mediterranean regions. They have a 
rather upright habit and small, myrtle-like, glossy, dark-green 
leaves. The flowers are small and not showy. They grow freely 
in any good garden soil to a height of ten feet and form a dense 

Propagate by cuttings, in the Fall, placed in sandy soil in a 
cold frame. 

Photinia {California Redberry or Holly) 
(Heteromeles serratifolia) 

A genus of highly ornamental trees or shrubs mostly natives 
of India, China and Japan, one being indigenous to Cahfomia. 
All are handsomely leaved. Our native species is the glory of 
our hillsides in Fall and Winter, and indispensable for decorating 
our rooms and banquet halls at Christmastide, its great bunches 
of crimson-red berries contrasting well with its glossy green 
fohage. The Redberry delights in a sunny situation and a loose 
rocky soil. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-eighth of an inch deep in open 
groimd in the Fall; transplant them when they are three inches 
high and replant them each year imtil they are large enough to 
be planted where required, as it is rather difficult to move them 
safely when they are left too long in one place. 



The Pitch Firs are classed among the most ornamental of the 
Conifer family, all of the species being highly prized for their 
beautiful form and tall pyramidal stately outline, making, when 
in health, splendid specimens for decorating the lawn either 
singly or in group form. 

In addition to our native species, the Eastern and Japanese 
species and even the Himalayan and Norwegian thrive in Cali- 
fornia, growing well in any garden soil which is properly drained. 

Propagate by seeds sown in Spring, one-quarter of an inch 
deep, in a shady spot; transplant the following year. 


The Pimelias are among our most showy late-Winter and 
early-Spring flowering shrubs, mostly 
natives of Australia and New Zealand. 
They have a neat compact habit of 
growth, being easily grown and easily 
propagated, while any fairly good soil 
will suit them. They make eixcellent 
plants for the margins of groups of taller- 
growing shrubs, or in small groups by 
themselves or singly in borders. There 
are about seventy species, only a few of 
which have been introduced into 

Propagate by cuttings placed in 
Pimelia rosea. sandy leaf-mold, in a cold frame in 

September or October; shade during hot sunshine; pot them 

singly in small pots when they are rooted. 

[14' I 


PiNus {The Pine) 

This hi^y ornamental as well as most useful genus com- 
prises about seventy species indigenous to most of the North 
Temperate Zone and contains many exceedingly ornamental and 
picturesque trees for landscape improvement. Pinus insignis 
(the Monterey Pine) by many authorities is considered to be the 
most ornamental of all the species either native or foreign. An- 
other native, Pinus Lambertiana (Sugar Pine) is without doubt 
the most gigantic of all. The Pine is not particular as to soil 
provided it is well drained, although there are some, such as 
Pinus Murrayana and Pinus rigida, which prefer a wet or swampy 

California is very rich in varieties of this genus, no less than 
sixteen species being indigenous to this coast. 

A Group of Pines. 



Among the most desirable foreign species may be included 
Pinus Cembra, Pinus halepensis and Pinus Pinea (the Italian 
Stone Pine) perhaps the most picturesque species of the genus. 
TTiis Pine prefers a sandy soil and a seaside sheltered situation. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in March or April, from one-quarter 
to one-half an inch deep (according to the size of the seeds) in a 
cold frame. When the young seedlings are two or three inches 
high, they should be placed in nursery rows in the open groimd, 
and, when from twelve to eighteen inches high, should be planted 
out in their permanent quarters in Winter. 


The Pittosporums form a large genus of over one hundred 
species, all evergreen and mostly natives of the Australian 
group. All the introduced spe- 
cies are of the easiest culture and 
not particular as to soil. They 
make grand single specimens on 
the lawn, besides being very 
effective In grouping, and also 
make excellent ornamental 
hedge plants. 

The species best adapted to 

California are Pittosporum cras- 

sifolium, Pittosporum eugenio- 

ides, Pittosporum nigricans, 

Pittosporum tobira and Pitto- 

Pittosporum undulatum. sporum undulatum. 

Propagate by seeds sown in March one-quarter of an inch 

deep, in a cold frame, or by cuttings placed in sandy leaf-mold 

in a cold frame in September. 



Platanxjs (Plane-Tree; Sycamore) 

This genus contains only three species, all being magnificent 
trees for parks and large grounds. To grow well, they should 
have a deep, soft moist soil and a well-sheltered site, preferably a 
river bottom where their roots may easily reach perennial waters. 

Propagate by seeds; the seeds are contained in round balls 
which must be broken to free the seeds. Sow in February, one- 
eighth of an inch deep in a shady place, and keep them well 
watered until they germinate; transplant them to nursery rows 
when they are one year old. 


A genus comprising about ten species of hardy shrubs or 
annual herbs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope, the East Indies 
and Southern Europe. 

Plumbago capensis (the pale-blue variety) is the most popu- 
lar of the species, being admirably adapted for training on trel- 
lises or pillars as is also Plumbago Zeylanica (the white-flower- 
ing variety). The latter does well as a garden shrub. Whether 
grown as a shrub or for the purpose of covering walls or trellises, 
it should be cut back hard after the flowering season is over in the 
late Fall. 

Propagate by suckers, which should be taken off in the early 
Spring and placed in nursery rows, or by cuttings placed in a 
cold frame in Ught sandy leaf-mold in September. 

PoiNCiANA (Peacock- flower) 

A genus of very pretty flowering trees or shrubs, natives 
of the West Indies and Eastern North Africa. They must have 
a warm simny situation where they form grand effects in Summer 
and Autunm. 



Poinciana pulcherrima (the East Indian species) grows to 
the height of about twelve feet and bears great masses of orange- 
yellow flowers. 

Poinciana regia (from Madagascar) is the largest of the 
genus, reaching, under favorable conditions, the height of from 
thirty to forty feet and having a trunk three feet in diameter. 
With its beautiful bipinnate leaves two feet in length it is very 
effective in the garden or grounds, especially when it is covered 
with its gorgeous masses of bright scarlet and yellow flowers. 

Propagate by cuttings in the Fall (protect them with glass 
frame during the first Winter), or by seeds sown, in early Spring, 
in a cold frame; cover the seeds to the depth of one-quarter of 
an inch. 


The Polygala is an extensive genus comprising over two 
hundred species, only a few of which are worthy of cultivation, 
Polygala Dalmaisiana (the com- 
mon species) being the best of 
the genus. 

It loves a cool climate near 
the coast away from frost, al- 
though it will stand a few de- 
grees without injury. The Poly- 
gala, like the European Whin, 
seems to flower every month in 
the year and has a neat dwarf 
bushy habit. 

Propagate by cuttings placed 

_ in a cold frame in sand and 

PolygaUDalmai^ian.. leaf-mold, in October; when 

rooted, pot them off singly in thumb-pots, shading the newly 

potted plants until they get over the change. 



PopuLUS (Poplar) 

A well known genus of deciduous trees natives of Europe, 
Asia and America. The genus contains about eighteen species, 
many of which, when given congenial soil, are among the most 
rapid growers of the forest. They thrive best in a deep damp 
soil, where the underground water is near the surface, or along 
the banks of creeks or watercourses. 

The favorite species are the Carolina, the Lombardy (pyra- 
midalis), the Aspen and the Silver-leaved. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in the open ground in 

Prunus (Plum) 

The Plum is one of our earliest flowering trees, often opening 
its showers of pink and white blossoms early in January. It forms 
a most handsome tree and should be 
seen in the landscape much more com- 
monly than it is, growing freely in any 
fairly good soil and requiring no irriga- 
tion if the soil is kept loose and free 
from w( eds. 

The first to bloom is the Prunus 
Pissardii (a native of Persia) having 
white flowers tinted with pink, while, a 
little later, its reddish-purple leaves and, 
in the Fall, its handsome light-red fruit 
make it a very desirable small tree. It 
grows to the height of about thirty feet. 

Prunus Mume, the famous flowering Pninus rineniu. 

Plum of Japan, with its showers of bright pink blossoms, makes 
a handsome feature in the landscape. Groups of this beautiful, 
hardy, free-flowering tree are most effective when grown with a 



background of dark-foliaged fir, spruce or yew, or flanked with a 
belt of Japanese Retinospora retusa. 

Prunus pendula, the Weeping Japanese Cherry is a smail 
tree growing to the height of twenty feet having drooping branches 
forming a pyramid. When in bloom it is very beautiful, being 
graceful in habit and covered with myriads of cherry pink blos- 

There are many other species which are very desirable for 
decorating the shrubbery, such as the double-flowering Prunus 
sinensis flore pleno, with pink or white flowers, and Prunus tri- 
loba, also a double-flowering species of shrubby habit. 

Propagate by cuttings inserted in the open ground in No- 
vember, or by seeds planted about one inch deep and three inches 
apart, in Spring. 

PxraiCA Gbanatum {Pomegranate) 

The Pomegranate is a small deciduous tree, native of Persia, 
with bright scarlet and orange- 
colored flowers and ornamental 
subacid-flavored fruit. It forms a 
very pretty low tree or shrub 
when in flower in early Summer 
and again when in fruit in the 
Fall. The double-flowered va- 
riety makes an excellent bush or 

Any good garden soil suits it 
as it is easily grown if given good 

Propagate by cuttings, layers 

Punka granatum. or suckers in Autumn after the 

leaves fall. 





Pyrus {Apple) 

The color effects produced by masses of apple-blossoms are 
among the finest of any flowering tree, 
especially in the case of the double and 
semi-double-flowering varieties. Fruit 
trees which have beautiful flowers 
should be planted in group form for 
their landscape effects much more com- 
monly than they are. The Belle-fleur 
Apple, planted, say six in a group, with 
a background of dark foliage, gives, 
when in flower, one of the most pleas- 
ing effects possible, and besides, if 
given good cultivation, furnishes just 
as fine fruit as if planted in orchard 

form. Pyrus floribunda. 

Pyrus floribunda, Pyrus Japonica, Pyrus Malus, and its 
varieties,, Pyrus Americana, and Pyrus aucuparia (the Mountain 
Ash) are all valuable in landscape work. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-quarter of an inch deep in 
Spring; transplant, the following Spring, into nursery rows 
one foot apart in the row, the rows being two feet apart from 
each other. 

QuERCUs {Oak) 

The Oaks belong to all countries which enjoy a temperate 
climate, and every country owning them is proud of its Oaks 
with their immense trunks, their picturesque character and great 
spread of limbs. For landscape effects on a large scale the Oak 
tree is indispensable, its rugged stem and twisted branches fur- 
nishing an element of character not to be found in any other 

All of the family are worthy of a place in any collection, 
but our natives should be preferred, as they give the same general 



effects as the Eastern and the European species; besides we 
know that our native species are sure to be long-lived, as they 
are comparatively free from disease and immune from the at- 
ta,cks of injurious insects. Many Oak trees which are long-lived 
in their native countries have proved to be short-lived when 
transplanted to a foreign country. The English Oak, for in- 
stance, which in Europe lives, under favorable conditions, to the 
great age of from fifteen hundred to eighteen himdred years, is 
said to show signs of decay when it reaches the age of from 
fifty to seventy years in the Eastern States. Native trees, there- 
fore, should at all times be given the preference when the in- 
digenous species give the effects desired. 

The White Oak delights in a deep rich heavy loam resting 
on a clay subsoil, the Live Oak in a rich loam on a gravel sub- 
soil. Stagnant water about the roots of a Live Oak will cause the 

Quercus suber. 



tree to become sickly and to fail to grow satisfactorily. Our 
native Black Oak, one of our most desirable species, loves a rich 
pocket of soil on a sheltered hillside. In such a situation it is one 
of the most attractive and noble of all the Oak family. 

California is justly proud of its Oaks, and it is hoped that 
owners of fine specimens, of whatever kind or species, will spare 
them as long as possible, remembering that it takes at least a 
hundred years to grow them and that many of our grand speci- 
men Oaks were large trees when Drake and Balboa first visited 
the Coast. 

Among the most desirable non-indigenous species are the 
English Oak (Quercus Robur), the Turkey Oak (Quercus Cerris), 
the Cork Oak (Quercus suber), the Pin Oak (Quercus palustris), 
the Willow Oak (Quercus Phellos) and the Southern Evergreen 
Oak (Quercus Virginiana) while all the others are well worthy 
of prominent places in large pleasure-grounds, public or private. 

Propagate by seeds planted one inch deep as soon as ripe; 
transplant them when one year old, into nursery rows, and again 
transplant them at least every two years until they are large 
enough to be planted in their permanent quarters. 


A genus of conifers closely allied to the Cypress and Thuya 
families and mostly native of Japan. 

They are all worthy of a place in a garden of choice plants, 
some being pyramidal in form while others are round-headed and 

The golden Retinospora with yellowish foliage and the silver 
variegated are effective. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in sand in a cold frame in October 
or November. 



Rhamnus {Buckthorn — Wild Coffee) 

This handsome evergreen or deciduous shrub is one of those 
most suitable for being planted in the portion of the grounds 
farthest distant from the water hydrant as it requires little at- 
tention after the first year. It grows in any soil, forms a dense 
mass of foliage, and, for planting as a shelter belt or screen, is 
equaled by few shrubs. 

For general planting purposes, Rhamnus Califomicus, our 
native wild coffee, will be found one of the most satisfactory. 

Propagate by seeds planted either in the open border or 
wherever the shrub is desired, covering the seeds to the depth of 
half an inch. 


The Rhododendron is justly classed among the noblest of 
shrubs, its laurel-like foliage, its massive habit and gorgeous 
trusses of flowers making it,when well grown, one of our fa- 
vorite evergreens. 

The Rhododendron prefers a shady situation and a moist at- 
mosphere; it also likes a light sandy soil and plenty of water 
at the roots but abhors Ume and alkaU either in the soil or in the 

Rhododendron Catawbiense and its varieties seem to do better 
than any other species in California, although some of the 
Himalayan species, where well protected, make good growth 
and flower freely, in some instances making three feet growth 
in a single season. 

Rhododendron Calif omicum becomes a splendid specimen and 
should be seen more often. Rhododendron ponticum and its 
varieties are doing excellently where the conditions are favora- 
ble, as are also the many hybrids now being introduced. 

The Rhododendron must be kept away from cold draughty 



situations and must have shade in the Summer season with 
plenty of water at the roots, — ^but no stagnant water. 

Propagate by seeds sown in Spring. As the seeds are very 
minute they should be sown in pots or pans which should first 
be thoroughly well drained and 
filled with sandy peat; press the 
soil firm and smooth; soak thor- 
oughly with water and, after 
sowing, press in the seeds and 
cover them lightly with silver- 
sand; place the pans in gentle 
heat and shade imtil the young 
seedlings appear when they 
should be given more air and 
light; when they are large 
enou^ to be handled, prick 
them off into pots and r^lace 

them in the same temperature Rhododendron. 

until they take fresh root when they should be placed in a cold 
frame and given room as required. 

Propagation may also be effected by planting cuttings of the 
, yoimg wood, in August or September, in soil composed of half 
silver-sand and half leaf-mold in a shaded cold frame or under 
a tree sheltered from cold winds. 

RoBDiiA (Locust) 

"Hie Locust is one of the most desirable of the deciduous trees. 
It has handsome pinnate leaves and bears its flowers in long ra- 
cemes of white, rose or purple blossoms. Any good garden soil 
is suitable for its growth. 

Propagate by seeds sown in the open ground during early 
Spring; cover the seeds one-half inch deep. In the following 
Spring the seedlings should be transplanted into nursery rows. 



RoMNEYA CouLTERi (MalUija Poppy) 

The Romneya is beyond doubt the finest of all wild flowers, 
none of the newly introduced varieties of the Poppy family being 
— equal to this wonderful native 

flowering shrub. Every garden, 
unless extremely small, should 
have its plant of Matilija Poppy. 
The Ronmeya Coulteri 
thrives in any soil (provided 
it is well drained) and re- 
quires no artificial irrigation, but 
it must have a sheltered, sumiy 
exposure in order to perfect its 
large and beautiful Peony-like 
white flowers. 

This Poppy is propagated by 

Romneya Coulter). seeds sown in a warm frame 

during early Spring, sandy leaf-mold being used and the seeds 

being covered to the depth of a quarter of an inch. It may also 

be propagated at the same season by division of the roots. 

Salix (IVillow) 

This genus contains over one hundred and fifty species, in- 
digenous from the farthest North of the Alaskan timber-hne to 
Mexico and from Nonvay to the Levant. The Willow loves a 
sheltered valley and a moist soil by the side of a stream where 
its bunches of rootlets may be seen floating on the water. 

Salix alba (the White Willow) and its variety vitellina (the 
Golden Willow) and Salix babylonica (the Babylonian Weeping 
Willow) are among the best for ornamental planting. 

Propagate, in November, December or January, by placing 
a cutting, of any size or length, one-third of its length in any 
soil; give it plenty of water. 

1 154) 


Sambucus (Elder) 

A genus of low trees or shrubs comprising about twelve spe- 
cies, all hardy, which will grow in any soil or situation, even the 
most exposed. 

Our native species, Sambucus glauca, grows to the height of 
about twenty feet and is common throughout the State. It is 
not recommended as an ornamental tree or shrub for large plant- 
ing in ornamental grounds but rather as a shelter shrub in ex- 
posed situations and in poor soil. Sambucus racemosa is very 
similar in habit to Sambucus glauca, only the berries, instead of 
being black, are bright scarlet and are much more effective in the 
landscape on that account. 

Sambucus aurea, a golden-leaved variety, is a fine ornamental 
plant, and, when planted in masses in the shrubbery, is very 

Propagate by cuttings placed in the open ground late in 

ScHiNUS MoLLE {Pepper-Tree) 

The Pepper-tree is a universal favorite and is worthy of a 
place in every garden, its graceful semipendulous habit of growth 
with its pleasing rounded outline and the olive-green color of its 
compound leaves contrasting well with most of the other trees 
and shrubs. 

Schinus moUe, a native of Peru, is much the most handsome 
species of the genus and is the only species recommended for 
general planting. The Pepper grows well in any ordinary gar- 
den soil with very little cultivation and is highly reconunended 
for planting in the vicinity of chicken yards and outhouses. 

Propagate by seeds sown, one-eighth of an inch deep, in a 
cold frame in early Spring; pot off the seedlings singly in three- 
inch pots when they are three inches high, and give them room 
as required. 



Sequou , (Redwood) 

The giant Redwood of California has a world-wide reputa- 
tion and is one of the wonders of the State, being without doubt 

the largest of the great family of 

Conifers. As a landscape tree 
it is possibly a little formal in 
habit, but, when a stately 
conical massive group of form- 
ally shaped trees is required, no 
tree is more effective, yoimg 
specimens, from fifty to one him- 
dred years of age and of the 
same number or more feet in 
height, forming magnificent 
groups in any landscape. 

The Sequoia gigantea loves 
Sequoia gigantea. [hg moimtains and is foimd 

growing only in sheltered valleys over four thousand feet above 
the sea level, in deep soil within dose proximity to the snow-line 
and also where perennial water is percolating within a few feet 
of the surface of the soil. 

Sequoia sempervirens, on the contrary, prefers a- low altitude 
near the coast but otherwise requires the same conditions of 
deep soil, reasonable shelter and water close to the surface. 
Although seldom found growing more than thirty miles away 
from the coast, it is rarely foimd nearer the coast than from 
three to four miles, the harsh winds blowing in from the ocean 
seeming to blast off the leaves and stunt the growth of any which 
sprout within close range of the ocean, unless they are given 

Propagate, in Spring, by seeds sown one-quarter of an inch 
deep in boxes placed in a cold frame; prick off the seedlings as 
soon as they are large enough to be handled and plant them in 



nursery rows in the open ground until they are from twelve to 
eighteen inches high when they should be planted in their per- 
manent situations. 

SoLLYA HETER03PHYLLA (Atistrolian Utie-hdl) 

The SoUya is a very pretty semi-twiner with blue bell-shaped 
flowers and is valuable for finishing small groups, covering a 
steep slope, rockeries, etc. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in sand in a cold frame in Octo- 
ber or by seeds sown under glass in early Spring. 



A genus of hardy deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs 
mostly natives of China, India and Japan, one being a native of 
New Mexico and another indigenous to Chile. They thrive well 
in any good well-drained loamy soil not too stiff. 

Sophora Japonica, the Japanese Pagoda Tree, is the most 
handsome of the genus, having a graceful form and pleasing 

Propagate by seeds sown one-quarter of an inch deep in the 
open groimd in Spring. The weeping and variegated forms are 
increased by grafting, in Winter, on the common stock at the 
height of stem desired. 

Plant in a rather low, well-sheltered situation and give plenty 
of water at the roots during the growing season. 

SoRBUS AUCUPARIA {Mountain Ash) 

A genus of ornamental deciduous trees or shrubs, all hardy 
in Califomia, the genus comprising about thirty species. AU 
have handsome foliage and many have showy bunches of red 
berries which remain long on the bushes, often until late in the 



One species (Sorbus sambucifolia) is a native of California 
but is only found wild in the Sierras at an elevation of from 
five thousand to eight thousemd feet. 

There are several other species, including the Service tree 
(Sorbus domestica) and the Eastern (Sorbus Americana) all 
worthy of cultivation. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, one-eighth of an 
inch deep in the open ground. 

Spartium junceum (Spanish Broom) 

The Spanish Broom is one of the shrubs best suited for plant- 
ing in the background in portions of the garden removed from the 
reach of the hose as it requires no artificial 
irrigation after the first year. It grows in the 
poorest of soil and on the dryest hillside. 

It is a native of the Canary Islands and the 
shores of the Mediterranean. 

It gives its best effect, especially if viewed 
from a little distance, when growing in masses 
on a rocky hillside (facing the sun) and sur- 
rounded by Pines or other dark-green foliage, 
its bright yellow, pea-shaped flowers, which 
completely hide the leaves, making the color 
effect very striking. This is especially notice- 
able as it blooms in the late Autumn when few 
Spartium funceum. qJ ^y^ flowering shrubs are in bloom. 

Excepting a semi-double variety, no variation in this species 
has yet been found. 

This shrub is propagated by sowing the seeds during Winter 
or early Spring in the open ground or in a cold frame, the seeds 
being covered to the depth of half an inch. When the seedlings 
are four inches high they should be transplanted into pots, and, 
during the following Spring, set out in their permanent situations. 




A genus comprising about fifty species of handsome flower- 
ing shrubs mostly deciduous. All are hardy, free-flowering 
and of easy culture, and no 
garden is complete without a 
collection of these most beauti- 
ful shrubs. They are excellent 
subjects for bordering groups of 
taller or more strongly-growing 
kinds which alone are apt to 
form stiff or too formal effects. 

A good collection of this 
genus, when weU grown, will 
give a supply of flowers for 
quite a long season; for instance 
Spiraea Chinensis commences 
blooming early in March and is Spiraea, 

succeeded by Spiraea prunifolia; then foUow the beautiful white- 
flowered sweet-scented Spiraea media, the rosy-red Spiriea Ja- 
ponica and the Queen of the Prairie (Spirtea lobata) with delicate 
peach-colored flowers, while Spiraea Lindleyana, the latest flow- 
ering of aU, blooms in September. These, with the addition of 
many varieties (including our native species Spirxa Douglasii, 
Spirtea Aruncus, Spirsea riiiliefolia, Spiraea opulifolia, Spirsea 
dumosa, etc.) make a most desirable collection in any garden. 

The Spirasa grows freely in any good soil with ordinary care 
and a reasonable amount of water during the growing season. 
Spiraea Aruncus, Spirtea palmata and other herbaceous species 
prefer a damp, moist situation, particularly the bank of a stream 
where their fibrous roots may reach the water. 

The herbaceous species are best propagated by division of the 
roots, and the shrubby kind either by division of the roots or by 



cuttings, placed in the open ground in sandy soil in October or as 
soon as they shed their leaves. 


A genus of evergreen trees or shrubs comprising about sixty 
species, mostly natives of Australia, Asia- and South America. 
They form stately trees of rather formal habit of stem and head, 
well adapted, under suitable conditions, for making good street 
trees. The best species for California are Sterculia acerifolia 
(the Australian Flame tree), StercuUa diversifolia (from Vic- 
toria) and Sterculia platanifolia (a native of China). All are 
fairly vigorous and prefer a warm sheltered situation. 

Propagate by cuttings of well-ripened wood placed, in Sep- 
tember, in a cool frame and shaded during hot sunshine until 
rooted, or by seeds sown in Spring, Cover the seeds to the depth 
of one-eighth of an inch. 


The Streptosolen is one of the finest of our trailing or creep- 
ing shrubs and is admirably 
adapted for covering slopes, for 
hanging over walls or for car- 
peting the groimd among tall 
shrubs, its tubular orange-col- 
ored flowers being very at- 

Propagation of the Strepto- 
solen is effected by cuttings 
placed in a cold frame, during 
October, in sandy leaf-mold. 
Late in the following Spring, or 
as soon as the cuttings are well 
Streptosolen. rooted, they should be planted in 

pots or in the open border. 






The Styrax is one of our most desirable flowering shrubs, hav- 
ing leaves about three inches in length and graceful white pen- 
dulous flowers. It becomes a handsome object in the shrubbery 
and is good for cutting for table or hall decoration in vases. 

Of this genus, Styrax serrulata (a native of Japan) is one of 
the best for planting in California. 

Propagate by seeds sown, as soon as ripe, one-quarter of an 
inch deep in light sandy loam in the open ground. 

When the seedlings are one year old they should be trans- 
planted, in early Spring, into nursery rows and set about six 
inches apart. 


A genus comprising many species of 
elegant hardy shrubs with rather 
spreading habit, which, when planted 
in conjunction with other shrubs hav- 
ing stout upright branches, form a 
charming combination. Being all Aus- 
tralian, they take kindly to our climate 
and should be seen more often. 

Propagate either by seeds or by cut- 
tings put in sandy soil in a cool frame 
any time from July to October. Cover 
the seeds to the depth of one-sixteenth 
of an inch. 


Syncarpia laurifolia is one of Australia's largest trees, grow- 
ing in that country to the height of two hundred feet. It has 
a rather spreading habit of growth and prefers a warm sunny 
situation ; as it is very sensitive to cold, it should not be planted 



where the thermometer falls below twenty-six degrees Fahrenheit. 
It thrives in any good soil in any situation not too moist. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in March or April, not more than 
one-sixteenth of an inch deep, in a warm greenhouse, and potted 
ofE when three inches high; plant them in permanent quarters 
when they are about three feet in height. 

Syringa {Lilac) 

This favorite shrub,'' which flowers in early Spring, should 
be represented in every garden however small. It grows freely 
in any good garden soil but will 
amply repay such extra atten- 
tion as it may receive in the way 
of the removal of suckers or a 
little additional top dressing. 

There are about ten species 
in the genus, including the Per- 
sian (Syringa Persica), the 
European (Syringa vulgaris), 
and the Japanese (Syringa Ja- 
ponica). These spedes have a 
number of varieties in many 
shades of color, varying from 
Syringa vulgaris. the deepest purple to the purest 

The Lilac is easily propagated by means of the suckers which 
are produced at the base of the established plant. These should 
be taken from the parent plant during Winter or early Spring 
and placed six inches apart in nursery rows, the distance between 
the rows being two feet. Here the young plants should remain 
until they are required for permanent planting. 

1 162] 



No shrub is better adapted to the planting of any waste spot 
or the filling up of a gap on the bank of a creek or where some 
other shrub has failed to grow. It stands exposure well, grow- 
ing even within the spray of salt water or in alkali soil; in fact, 
it thrives under almost any conditions, preferring a sandy soil 
however, and a situation within the influence of the sea air. 

The Tamarix Gallica, Tamarix orientalis, Tamarix plumosa, 
and Tamarix parviflpra are all very desirable. 

Propagate by inserting cuttings into sandy soil in the open 
ground in the Winter months. 

Taxodium (Swamp Cypress) 

An excellent tree for semi-aquatic situations, having a soft 
light-green fern-like foliage. It is 
very graceful in habit and highly 
ornamental. The genus comprises 
several species including Taxo- 
dium distichum (from Louisiana) 
and Taxodium mucronatum, the 
Montezuma Cypress (from 

Propagate by cuttings, during 
the Winter months, placed in a 
vessel of water where they will 
root in a few weeks, or by seeds 
sown one-eighth of an inch deep 
in light sandy soil, and placed Taxodium. 

in a warm greenhouse in Spring. 



Taxus {The Yew) 

The Taxus comprises about eight species, natives of the East- 
em States, Europe and Japan, one being indigenous to California 
while another is a native of Mexico. 

Taxus baccata, the common English Yew, is indigenous to 
most of the countries of Europe and extends even to British 
India. It grows, under favorable conditions, to the height of 
fifty feet with a trunk five feet in diameter. It has many vari- 
eties, including Taxus baccata argentea (having leaves striped 
with silvery white), Taxus baccata aurea (having leaves broadly 
edged with yellow, this being a very desirable variety for plant- 
ing in small groimds or for grouping among other Yews in larger 
grounds) and Taxus baccata fastigiata, the Irish Yew, or, as it is 
sometimes named, the Florence Court Yew, a species much used 
in formal gardens. 

The Yew grows in any soil and in any situation not too much 
exposed to harsh winds, and while it loves a semi-shady situation 
on the bank of a stream, it does well under any ordinary garden 

Propagate by seeds sown one-sixteenth of an inch deep in the 
open groimd in Spring, or by cuttings inserted in September in 
sandy soil in a cool frame and shaded for a few weeks during hot 
sunshine. The variegated varieties are increased by grafting, in 
Winter, on the common species. They may also be propagated 
by layering in Siunmer. 

Templetonia {Coral Bush) 

A most beautiful ornamental shrub with simple leaves, a 
dense bushy habit and pea-shaped blossoms of bright crimson. 
It grows easily in any common soil and with very little irrigation, 
preferring a rather dry gravelly soil and a warm, sheltered situa- 
tion where it well repays any attention bestowed upon it. 



Propagate by cuttings placed in sandy leaf-mold in a cold 
frame in September. 


A genus of coniferfe comprising about a dozen species of hardy 
evergreen trees or shrubs, natives of America and Asia, two of 
them being indigenous to the Pacific 
Coast. Thuya gigantea, one of 
the Coast species, is a tall hand- 
some evergreen graceful tree of 
pyramidal habit with somewhat 
drooping branches, and grows, 
under favorable circumstances, 
from one hundred to two hundred 
feet high with a diameter of stem 
from three to six feet, thriving well 
in any well-drained garden soil. 

Propagate by seeds sown one- 
eighth of an inch deep in boxes 
fiUed with light sandy soil in a Thuya giganua. 

cold frame in early Spring. Transplant them into open nursery 
rows when they are three inches high, and plant them in their 
permanent quarters when they are about two feet high. 

The Chinese species (Thuya orientalis), of a dwarf habit, is 
much used in cemeteries and formal gardens, its formal sym- 
metrical habit making it a favorite in that style of gardening. 
Thuya occidentalis, the eastern species, grows to a height of about 
sixty feet and forms a narrow pyramidal rather compact head. 

The different species have many garden varieties, and a num- 
ber of them, including variegated forms, are very beautiful. 
These are propagated by cuttings placed in sand in a cold frame 
in the Fall or by grafting on the original species in early Spring. 



Thxjyopsis dolabeata 
This small genus comprises only a few species natives of 
Japan. Their foliage is much like that of the Thuya but the 
habit is spreading and more open. They make handsome rock- 
work plants. They grow easily in any garden soil. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in a cold frame in sandy soil 
mixed with leaf-mold, in October. 

TiLiA (Linden) 
The Linden is one of the most desirable of the large-growing 
trees, being symmetrical and formal in habit, especially when 
young. As a single specimen on the lawn or as an avenue tree 
it is unequalled. It loves a deep light loam and a sheltered site. 
There are several species, one a native of the Eastern States 
and one of Europe. These species have a number of varieties, 
the leaves of some of them being variegated. 

The Linden is propagated by seeds which should be sown as 
soon as ripe in the open ground one-quarter of an inch deep. 
ToRREYA (False Nutmeg Tree) 
Ornamental evergreen trees with spreading branches and 
dark-green yew-like foliage. The 
Torreyas grow well in any well- 
drained soil and make handsome 
specimens for the lawn, either singly 
or planted in groups. Our native 
species (Torreya Coulteri) the hand- 
somest of the genus, grows to a height 
of about one hundred feet^, Torreya 
grandis grows to about the same 
height as does also the Florida species. 
All are propagated by seeds 
planted one inch deep and three 
inches apart in the open ground in 
Torreya Coulteri. early Spring. They should be trans- 



planted into nursery rows the following Spring, and, when from 
eighteen inches to two feet high, should be planted where they 
are to remain. 


A small genus of Australian trees belonging to the Myrtle 
family having leaves about eight inches in length and oval in 
diape. When full-grown, the Tristania forms a stately tree, 
being evergreen with an open head, and should make a good 
street tree. 

Propagate by seeds sown in Spring (covering the seeds very 
lightly with light sandy soil), or by cuttings of half-ripe wood 
in the Fall, placed in sand in a cold frame and shaded from sun 
for two or three weeks. When they are rooted, plant them in 
three-inch pots, giving them larger pots as the roots require. 

Ulmus (Elm) 

A genus comprising about twenty species of lofty deciduous 
trees, greatly used in parks and 
large grounds for grouping, and 
also as avenue and street sidewalk 
trees. In good soil the Elm is a 
rapid grower. 

In cultivating the Elm, care 
should be taken, when plowing or 
spading about the roots, not to in- 
jure them, for, if the least scratch 
or bruise is made, there shoots up 
a bunch of suckers which are diffi- 
cult to get rid of. 

Ulmus Americana, Ulmus cam- 
pestris, Ulmus scabra, and their Ulmu*. 

varieties are considered the best species for general planting. 

Propagate by seeds, sown one-eighth of an inch deep in the 
open ground, as soon as ripe which is generally in June; or by 



layers or suckers in Winter or early Spring before the buds swell; 
or by grafting in Winter; or by budding in May. 

Umbellularia Calipornica {California Laurel) 
This genus contains but one species and is found only on the 
Pacific Coast. The Laurel is one of our grandest evergreens, 
being handsome even in the nursery; when from fifteen to forty 
feet high it forms a fine pyramid, and, when fully grown in 
favorable soil, is a magnificent specimen. It loves a deep well- 
drained soil, preferably on the bank of a stream. 

No evergreen tree, native or exotic, is better adapted for 
forming groups of dense foliage than the California Laurel if 
given a suitable place. In the hot interior valleys it is apt to be 
attacked by scale, so, on that account, should be given a shady 
situation and plenty of water at the roots during the dry season. 
Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, one inch deep in 
the open ground. Transplant them into nursery rows when the 
young plants are six inches high. 

A genus comprising about one hundred and fifty species of 
shrubs or herbs, all being showy 
i and free- flowering with blue, 

j crimson or white flowers. They 

grow well in any garden soil in 
almost any situation, either in 
the sun or the shade, and stand 
exposure to harsh winds better 
than most shrubs. Their habit 
is compact and very well adapted 
to finishing groups of strong- 
growing shrubs or trees, con- 
necting perfectly the foliage of 
the strong-growing upright- hab- 
Veronlca deciuuta. jted with the grassy slope or level 




lawn. Their foliage is smooth, carries no dust and is always glossy 
and fresh looking. They flower in racemes and are always in 

The shrubby species are mostly natives of New Zealand. 

There are many species of this most desirable shrub, includ- 
ing Veronica Andersonii, Veronica buxifolia, Veronica decussata, 
Veronica Colensoi, Veronica elliptica, etc., all being excellent 
shrubs, especially for the coast counties, but they are not re- 
commended for the central counties unless planted under the 
shade of trees or on a Northern exposure. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in light sandy soil in a cold 
frame in September or October. 


A genus comprising about eighty species of deciduous and 
evergreen low trees and shrubs, 
all being hardy in California. 
Many of the species are highly 
ornamental, Viburnum Tinus 
being grown in almost every 
garden in the State, while Vi- 
burnum Opulus sterilis (the 
Common Snowball) is also a 
universal favorite. No decidu- 
ous flowering shrub is better 
suited to the planting of shrub- 
bery borders than the Snowball, 
its many varieties, its great 
masses of white pendant cymes in Spring, and its beautiful tmted 
leaves in the Fall making it most desirable. 

These excellent qualities, combined with its easy culture in 
any ordinary soil (although it prefers a moist soil and parUal 
shade) should commend it to all lovers of flowering shrubs. 


viburnum Tlniu. 


In addition to the above named, Virburaum Japonicum, 
Viburnum tomentosum, Viburnum macrophyllum (Chinese Snow- 
ball) and several others are very effective. 

Propagate by cuttings of ripe wood in the Fall, or by seeds, 
sown one-eighth of an inch deep in the Spring, or by layering in 
Summer, all in the open groimd. 

■ } i. J r i f i ' o 


The Virgilia is one of our most handsome flowering trees and 
blooms during August and Sep- 
tember, when very few trees or 
shrubs are showing color, thus 
being a most desirable tree for 
the garden. It grows to the 
height of about forty feet and 
is of a graceful spreading habit. 
With its deeply cut pinnate 
leaves, when laden with its pan- 
icles of pale lilac-colored flowers, 
it makes a fine effect on the 
lawn or in the shrubbery. It 
thrives in any well-drained gar- 
Virsilia lutea den soil. 

Propagate by seeds which should be sown, in Spring, about 
one-quarter of an inch deep in the open groimd. When one year 
old, the seedlings should be transplanted into nursery rows. Set 
them twelve inches apart. 




climbers and twiners 


S is a genus of about twenty species of 
duous ornamental climbers which grow 
ny garden soil, all being rapid growers 
ig in any position or aspect. They are 
. lor training against the walls of buUd- 
ings, and, when they take on their Autumn tints of bright red 
and yellow, present a striking appearance. 

Ampelopsis quinquefolia (the Virginia-creeper) and Am- 
pelopsis tricuspidata (the Boston Ivy) are the most useful. 

The Ampelopsis is easily propagated by seeds sown in Spring 
one eighth of an inch deep in a cool frame, or by cuttings of ripe 
wood placed in the open ground in sandy soil in September. 


A genus of woody twiners with irregular and grotesque 
flowers, one species being a native of California. Aristolochia 
sipho, commonly called The Dutchman's Pipe, is a very rapid 
grower, sometimes making over twenty feet in a single season. 

They like a warm sheltered situation and plenty of water at 
the root during the growing season. 

Propagate by cuttings, in September, placed in pots filled 
with sandy leaf-mold, in a cool frame, and shaded from the sun 
until rooted; when they are rooted, pot them in three-inch pots 
and plant them out the following Spring. 


BiGNONiA {Trumpet Vine) 

The Bignonias are nearly all either climbers or twiners. They 
are vigorous growers and have gorgeous trumpet or funnel-shai)ed 
flowers, some of them possessing 
flower-tubes six inches in length. 
These handsome climbers are 
excellent plants for covering 
walls, growing over old stimips 
of trees, forming screens or trel- 
Uses, etc. They will grow in any 
good garden soil, preferring how- 
ever a sheltered situation. A 
wall facing the east is adapted 
for their full development. 

This is another genus, which 
the gardeners of California have 
Bignonia Chercre. introduced from the greenhouses 

of the East and from Europe, now giving splendid effects in our 
favored State. Bignonia capreoiata (a native of the Southern 
United States) is one of the hardiest and has orange-colored 
flowers. This'species has a variety, with dark-red flowers, also 
a very desirable climber. Bignonia Cherere is a fine species bear- 
ing quantities'of brownish-orange flowers. Bignonia diversifolia 
bears yellow and Bignonia floribunda purple flowers. Bignonia 
Tweediana, one of the best of the genus, with pretty lance- 
shaped leaves, has yeUow flowers and is an elegant climber of 
rapid growth, Bignonia venusta bears glorious masses of blos- 
soms and should be in every collection. 

The Bignonia is propagated by cuttings placed in a cold frame 
during August or September in soil composed of one-half sand, 
one-quarter leaf-mold and one-quarter good loam, well mixed 
together, or by seeds sown, in Spring, a quarter of an inch deep. 




The Bougainvillea is justly classed among the most showy 
of our climbers, and, when 
planted beside a veranda or 
when allowed to climb on a tall 
tree or building gives gorgeous 

This climber delights in a 
warm sheltered situation and 
good soil with a reasonable 
amount of water during the 
simimer months. There are sev- 
eral varieties, all of which are 
desirable, including Bougain- 
villea speciosa, Bougainvillea 
BougainvUlea. Saundersiana, Bougainvillea gla- 

bra and Bougainvillea lateritia. 

The Bougainvillea is easily increased by cuttings, put in a 
frame in September or March and given a little heat. 


The Clematis is among the 
most beautiful of our hardy 
climbers. The large-flowering va- 
rieties are unequaled for decorating 
■ the porch or veranda pillars. The 
small- flowered species, such as the 
Clematis paniculata, should be 
planted at the base of a tall tree 
where they send their shoots often 
to a height of fifty feet and form 
great masses of white fragrant 

The Clematis thrives in any 



good garden soil but prefers a light sandy soil well enriched by 
old manure and plenty of water during the growing season. 
Should any signs of mildew appear, dust with flowers of sulphur 
at once, so as to stop the mildew from spreading. All the 
Clematis flower better if severely pruned each Fall or Winter 
before growth commences. 

Propagate the finer varieties by cuttings or by grafting on 
common stock in Summer. 



The Cobaea is a rampant-growing soft-wooded climber with 
bell-shaped flowers, thriving well in any good soil but preferring 
a sheltered, sunny situation. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in February, one-eighth of an inch 
deep in a hotbed, and potted off in three-inch pots. As soon as 
the young plants have filled the pots with roots, gradually harden 
them by placing the pots in a cold frame; in May, plant them 
out where they are to remain. 


The Dolichos is a free-growing ornamental twiner with pea- 
shaped flowers and pretty light-green foUage, growing freely in 
any soil and thriving either in the sun or in the shade. 

Propagate by seeds sown either in the open ground in early 
Spring or at any season imder glass. Cover the seeds to the depth 
of one-sixteenth of an inch. 


A genus of elegant hardy evergreen climbers with yellow or 
orange-red flowers tubular shaped. The leaves are compoimd 
with oval-shaped leaflets. They are excellent for covering fences, 
walls, etc., growing freely in any soil. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in a cold frame in August or 
September; shade them during sunshine imtil the yoimg roots 
are formed, when they should be potted off into three-inch pots. 



Hedera Helix (Ivy) 

Few climbing plants will be found more useful than the old- 
fashioned Ivy as it grows in any soil and almost any aspect. 
It is good for covering walls, railings or rustic houses, and makes 
excellent bordering for walks or a covering for bare spots under 
trees where few other plants will grow. Should the leaves get 
dusty, it is a good plan to clip off all the leaves annually, about 
the end of March or just before the Spring growth begins, and 
in a few weeks the old leaves will be replaced by a new crop of 
bright clean foliage. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in the open groimd in October 
or November ; in a few months they will be rooted and ready to 
be planted m their permanent places. 


The Ipomcea is an extensive genus, having over four hundred 
species of twining or creeping plants whose campanula or salver- 
shaped blossoms are of all shades of purple, red, blue or white. 
They are among the prettiest of plants for covering the limbs of 
old trees, trellises, veranda pillars, etc. All of the species may 
be easily raised from seeds which should be sown in early Spring, 
one eighth of an inch deep in four-inch pots filled with good 
loam mixed with about one-third sand; sow three seeds in each 
pot and place the pots in a warm place under glass. When the 
yoimg seedlings are about six inches high they should be tied to 
small temporary stakes and gradually hardened by exp)osure to 
the open air; after two weeks' exposure to the open they are 
ready to be planted out. 


The Jasminums are well-known plants and are very popular 
on account of their elegant habit and sweet-scented flowers. 
They make excellent covering for fences, trellises, arbors, etc.. 
and thrive in any good garden soil. 



Jasminum nudiflorum is one of our earliest Spring-flowering 
plants, often opening bright-yellow flowers as early as January. 
Jasminum oflicmale, the fragrant common Jasmine, blooms con- 
tinuously from early Summer until late in the Autumn. 

Propagate by layers laid in, an inch deep, in ordinary soil in 
June, or by cuttings of the ripe wood, in September, inserted one 
inch deep in sandy soil in a cold frame or in the open ground; 
select shoots not showing flower at the top. 
The Kennedyas are rapid-growing hardy twiners, natives of 
Australia; they like a warm sunny situation. They bear pea- 
shaped flowers, reddish-brown or scarlet in color. Any good 
garden soil will grow them well. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, one-quarter of an 
inch deep in a warm greenhouse or hotbed; when they are large 
enough to be handled, pot them singly in three or four-inch pots; 
gradually harden them by exposure to the open air and plant 
them out when they show signs of making fresh growth. 
Lathyrus odokatus {Sweet-pea) 

This general favorite is a na- 
tive of the Mediterranean islands 
and consequently is at home in 
the climate of California. It 
thrives well in any good garden 
soil, but, in order to obtain the 
best results the soil should be 
trenched two spades in depth 
and four inches of old manure 
mixed with the soil. 

In addition to its value as a 
garden plant, the Sweet-pea 

makes a very good window-box 
Lathynu odoratus. . , 

plant, its fragrant many-colored 



flowers spreading a pleasant odor throughout the room when it is 
thus grown. 

In planting the Sweet-pea seeds, form with a hoe or shovel 
a shallow furrow about two feet wide and three mches deep, in 
the middle of which draw the seed-drill three inches deep. In 
this seed-drill the seeds should be planted about three inches apart. 
When the young plants are six inches high, place a row- of tree 
limbs or a fence of wire netting alongside them so that they may 
have something to chmb over. Also spread a mulch of manure 
about the plants; this will keep the ground cool and preserve 
the moisture. Where a succession of bloom is desired, the seeds 
should be sown about three times a year. Seeds which are sown 
during Winter or early Spring should have a covering of soil 
one inch deep while those sown in Summer or early Fall should 
be covered to the depth of from two to two and a half inches and 
shaded with a light covering of straw or some other light material 
until the seeds come through the surface. 

LoNiCERA {Honeysuckle) 

The Honeysuckle is an extensive genus, comprising over 
eighty species of hardy decidu- 
ous or evergreen shrubs or climb- 
ers with tubular-shaped flowers, 
many of them delightfully fra- 
grant. They are well suited for 
covering walls, arbors and trel- 
lises or for mixing with shrubs 
where they give charming natu- 
ral effects, twining, as they do, 
around the stems and forming a 
carpet to the groimd under the 

The fragrant- flowered decid- 
uous English or common Wood- 



bine and the evergreen Japanese spyecies are among the best of 
the genus. 

Propagate by cuttings of the ripe wood inserted in the open 
ground in the Fall. 

Mandevilla suaveolens 

The Mandevilla is one of our 
most handsome climbers, its elegant 
twining habit and its pure white 
fragrant flowers making it very de- 
sirable for training against walls or 
trellises. It thrives in any good soil, 
but should not be grown in cold ex- 
posed situations. 

Propagate by seeds sown one- 
eighth of an inch deep, in heat in early 
Spring; plant them singly in small 
pots as soon as they are large enough 
to be handled ; gradually harden them 
and plant them out in early Summer. 

Mandevilla suaveolens. 


The Maurandyas are very pretty climbers with small heart- 
shaped leaves and funnel-shaped flowers. They are easily grown 
if given a sheltered spot away from harsh winds. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in March, one-sixteenth of an 
inch deep, in a cool frame or greenhouse; when they have made 
four leaves, transplant them into either pots or boxes; after 
gradually exposing them to the open air to be hardened, plant 
them where they are to remain. 




This is a genus comprising about fifteen sj>ecies of hardy 
shrubs, mostly natives of Australia and New Zealand. They are 
of very easy culture, thriving in any fair garden soil and a sunny 

Muehlenbeckia coraplexa is one of the best of our hardy 
climbers, being excellent for growing over rocky ledges, old 
stumps, etc., for hanging or drooping over the rims of vases or 
for hanging over walls. Its habit is dense. On account of its 
distinct form, the brownish color of its leaves and its heavy 
spray-like branches it is very valuable for cutting. 

This climber is propagated by cuttings placed in a cold frame 
in September and shaded during sunshine until well rooted. 

Muehlenbeckia complexa. 




A large genus of highly interesting climbers of rapid growth, 
mostly natives of tropical America. They are noted for their 
elegant habit and gorgeous flowers, making grand effects when 
planted at the base of an old Pine or Oak tree and allowed to 
twine along the branches of the tree and to hang down in long 
pendants laden with their gaily-colored oddly-shaped flowers. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in light sandy soil in a cold 
frame in September; pot them into three-inch pots and plant 
them out in the early Spring. 


The Solanum Wendlandii is one of the best of the climbers, 
no one of its color giving so good results when it has been put in 
a suitable place, its lilac-blue flowers producing gorgeous effects 
for several months of the year. It delights in a well-protected 
sunny situation and a fairly good soil. 

Solanum jasminoides (the conmion Potato Vine) is also 
ver>'^ desirable. This species is much hardier than the former and 
will grow well in almost any soil or situation, preferably however 
at the base of an old tree; hanging from the branches it is very 

The Solanum is propagated by cuttings which should be 
placed in sandy soil in a warm frame in August. 


This beautiful Spring-flowering climber is so well known as 
hardly to require any description. The genus contains about five 



species. Wistaria speciosa is a native of North 
America and blooms a month later than Wistaria 
sinensis, a native of China, which is the species 
most grown. Wistaria Japonica and Wistaria 
multijuga (the former bearing white flowers and 
the latter lilac flowers with purple wings) are 
natives of Japan. These again have varieties 
which bear double flowers. 

The Wistaria deUghts in a light and rich soil, 
and, if given this, will produce branches sometimes 
a hundred feet in length on each side of the main 
stem, giving gorgeous masses of bloom in the eariy 

The Wistaria forns great bundles of small 
growths which often become matted under the eaves of buildings 
or about the stems of old trees. Where they grow freely, these 
matted growths should, in Winter, or before growth commences 
in early Spring, be carefully disentangled and all of the weaker 
growths should be pnmed back to a strong spur or bud, the re- 
maining branches being laid in and fastened by ties to the wall or 
other support, not closer together, however, than twelve inches. 

Propagation of the Wistaria is effected most easily by seeds 
sown during early Spring, one-half of an inch deep, in a warm 
frame or greenhouse, or by layering in June. 




bulbous and tuberous-rooted plants 

.The African lily is one of our favorite bulbous-rooted plants, 

with IxLxuriant yet graceful foliage and great 

umbels of bright blue or white flowers in clus- 
ters of from twenty to thirty measuring over a 
foot across. It makes a fine showing in the 
flower-border or on the lawn. It thrives best 
in deep rich loamy soil, well enriched with man- 
ure, and can hardly receive too much water 
during the growing season. 

Propagate by offsets or by dividing the old 
plants into single crowns and planting them in 

^ Amaryllis 

The Amaryllis are among the most gorgeous of our bulbous 
flowering plants. Some of the genus, such as Amaryllis Bella- 
donna, have the flowering season o\'er before the leaves appear. 
Their tall stems (large heads of fragrant and beautiful pink 
flowers) make them great favorites for cutting and for fiUing 
vases. They delight in soil of a light rich nature, in which 
they should be planted about eight inches deep and left undis- 
turbed for years, where they will ultimately establish themselves 
and produce grand masses of bloom. During dry weather and 
until they have perfected their foliage, they should be given an 
abundance of water, after which they do not require so much, 
and it may gradually be withdrawn altogether. 


Vallota purpurea and Imantophyllum miniatum will be 
found to do excellently if given a warm sheltered situation and a 
rich loamy soU. Plant the Vallota bulbs six inches apart and the 
Imantophyllums twelve inches apart, one-half of the bulb being 
above ground. 

Propagate by dividing the bulbs and planting them in March, 
or by seeds collected as soon as ripe in the Fall and sown in a 
warm, sheltered border or cold frame in early Spring; cover the 
seeds to the depth of about a quarter of an inch. 

Calochortus {Mariposa Lily) 

Handsome native bulbous plants with showy flowers and 
erect flower-stems. There are about twenty varieties, all of 
which are very beautiful. They require a good strong loam of 
considerable depth to grow well. Pasture fields are the native 
homes of the Mariposa Lilies. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, in light loam, cover- 
ing the seeds to the depth of one-eighth of an inch, or by division 
of the bulbs which should be taken up as soon as the leaves turn 
yellow and the bulbs are in a dormant state. Keep the bulbs 
in a cool dry position covered by light loam or sand to preyent 
them shrinking, as leaving them all Winter in paper bags or in 
dry sheds seems to dry them too much and to weaken their 
growth the following year. Plant them immediately after the 
first Fall rains, from six to twelve inches apart and from two to 
three inches deep. Select a spot away from artificial irrigation. 
On no account disturb the bulbs and they will give improved 
flowers year by year. 


This well-known genus is among the earliest of our Spring 
flowers, often opening its flower-scapes the first week in January, 
It prefers a light, rich, loamy soil and a sheltered situation, 

1 183] 


After they are done blooming and the leaves turn yellow, 
the bulbs should be taken up. 

Propagate by dividing the bulbs when they are in a dormant 
state; keep them, in a cool dry place, covered with dry soil until 
the next planting season in October or the early part of Novem- 
ber; plant them about three inches deep. 

The Crocus may also be propagated by seeds sown about a 
quarter of an inch deep, as soon as ripe or in eariy Spring, in 
light rich soil, and left in the seed-bed for two years when the 
yoimg conns may be separated and transplanted. 


In the cultivation of this handsome bulbous plant, a light 
rich soil should be provided, and firm, solid bulbs of good size 
selected; soft spongy bulbs give weak stems and poor flowers. 
Plant the bulbs about eight inches apart and three inches deep, 
placing a little sand in the hole before planting. The latter end 
of October or the first week in November will be foimd the best 
time to plant. As soon as the flower-spikes are from six to eight 
inches high they should be neatly staked to prevent the flowers 
being broken by their own weight; should the weather continue 
dry in Spring or while they are in bloom, they should be watered 
freely as any dryness at the root will weaken the growth and 
shorten their season of bloom. As soon as the foliage is ripe or 
turned yellow in color, the bulbs should be taken up and the 
foliage cleaned off; when they are thoroughly dry, they should 
be packed in boxes filled with dry soil and laid away in a cool 
dry place until the following season. 

Propagate by dividing the bulbs, taking the offsets from the 
old bulbs as soon as they are taken up; place the offsets in 
separate boxes and plant them, in small beds or borders, two 
inches deep in light rich soil. They flower the third year. 




The Iris belongs to a genus of over one hundred species of 
hardy herbaceous plants with creeping or tuberous root-stocks. 
The Iris is found naturally all over the Temper- 
ate Zone, in America from Canada to California, 
and in Europe from Russia to sunny Spain, 
while the gorgeous Iris Kaempferi and Iris 
tectonim come to us from Japan; others are 
natives of Siberia, and quite a few are from 

The Iris delights in a deep rich clayey soil 
preferably alongside the bed of a stream or 
canal or on the banks of a pool or lake where 
the moisture rises within two feet of the surface. 
If these conditions are not available, a bed 
should be prepared by trenching the soil two 
feet deep and mixing the soil freely with old "^ 

decomposed manure. 

Plant the bulbs or roots so that about one inch of soil covers 
the crown, and give them water copiously during the growing 

Iris Germanica, Iris florentina, Iris susiana, and the dwarf 
Iris pumila, besides many others, are well worthy of prominent 
positions in our gardens and pleasure-grounds. 

Propagate by division of the roots or bulbs in early Spring, 
or by sowing the seeds in light sandy soil in either a cold frame 
or a sheltered border as soon as the seeds are ripe. Cover the 
seeds a quarter of an inch deep. 


This beautiful Spring-flowering bulb is most useful for giving 
a fine effect in Spring and early Sununer from its elegant habit, 
its graceful flower-stalks and its rich and varied colors, the 




center of the flowers always differing in shades from the other 

The genus contains about twenty-five species of easy culture 
in any good garden soil. 

In October or early in November plant the bulbs about six 
inches deep ; as soon as the leaves turn yellow take up the bulbs 
and store them in a cool dry place until the next planting season. 

Propagation by offsets is the quickest method of increasing 
the number of plants ; they may be secured in quantity after the 
parent bulbs have ripened off; store them in a cool dry place 
until the planting season ; plant the offsets in a sheltered position 
about three inches apart for one season ; the second year they will 
bloom and may be planted in their blooming quarters. 

They may also be propagated by seeds which should be sown 
in pans or boxes about September and placed in a cold frame; 
cover the seeds to the depth of one-quarter of an inch ; the second 
year plant the young bulbs a few inches apart in a sheltered spot, 
taking up the bulbs as soon as ripe and storing them until plant- 
ing time. They will bloom the third year. 

Kniphofia {Redhot Poker Plant) 

This handsome stately herbaceous plant is a general favorite 
on account of its striking color and adaptability to almost any 
soil or position, doing well in poor soil although it prefers rich 
loam. Even on our rocky dry hillsides it struggles along and 
boldly sends up its large tufts of long narrow leaves and stately 
flower-stalks covered with scarlet or yellow blossoms until late 
in the season. 

Propagate by dividing the crowns in early Spring, planting 
them where wanted to flower, which they will do the succeeding 
Summer and Fall. Cover the crowns to the depth of one inch. 



LiLiUM (LUy) 

Lilies are matchless among hardy bulbs for beauty of form 
and variety of color and also for the length of their blooming 
season. They delight in a cool fresh soil and a sheltered semi- 
shaded situation; grouped among tall shrubs they show to good 
advantage. After the stems are well-formed and about one foot 
high, give them a good top-dressing of well-decomposed manure 


about three inches deep all over the surface of the ground, and 
abundance of water until the flowering season is over when water 
should be gradually withdrawn so as to encourage the ripening 
of the bulbs. 

They are increased by taking the small bulblets which form 
about the old bulbs (as soon as the bulbs are ripe which is shown 
by the leaves and stems turning yellow and dropping off) and 
planting them half an inch deep in separate beds in Ught rich 
soil, growing them on until they are large enough to bloom, 
when they may be planted out in the beds or borders where 
they are to flower. When the young bulblets are taken up they 
should be transplanted into their new quarters without any delay, 
as exposure to drying wind or being allowed to Ue any length 
of time in a dry atmosphere (even if in a shed or shaded situa- 
tion) has a weakening effect on their future growth. 

With a good selection of the many gorgeous species, Lilies 
may be had in bloom for several months. Among the earliest- 
flowering kinds may be mentioned Lilium candidum (St. Joseph's 
Lily) and our splendid natives LiUum Washingtonianum, 
Lilium pardalinum and LiUum Humboldti; following them, 
Lilium tigrinum, Lilium lancifolium and its varieties the splendid 
Lilimn auratum and the tall and stately LiUum giganteum, 
besides many others equally beautiful. 




This hardy free-flowering bulbous plant is a native of South 
Africa and grows to the height of about two and one-half feet. 
It thrives well in any good garden soil and increases rapidly, its 
roots spreading freely. It requires little attention beyond getting 
a plentiful supply of water until the blooming season is over 
when the water may be gradually withdrawn. It should be 
taken iip and replanted about March in every third year. The 
roots get so thickly matted together by that time that the groimd 
becomes impoverished, the result being small and imperfect 
flowers and fohage. The Montbretias make excellent plants for 
carpeting in groups of young shrubs which still show bare ground 
between the plants. 

Propagate in early Spring by dividing the roots and planting 
them twelve inches apart in bunches of from three to six bulbs 
each. Cover them to the depth of half an inch. 

Narcissus {DaffodU) 

A genus of popular hardy Spring- flowering plants with hand- 
some white or yello.w flowers. They are 
excellent for fiUing beds or borders and 
make fine effects when planted in appar- 
ently natural groups in the lawn. 

When planting them in the lawn, 
avoid symmetrical lines or formal shapes 
as far as possible, a good plan being to 
take the bulbs in the hand and to scatter 
them freely, planting them where they 
fall. When planting in the grass, take 
up a piece of the sod about three inches in 
diameter and six inches deep; in the 
bottom place about an inch of light rich 
Narcissuf. soil, then plant the bulb, fill in another 



three inches of soil, and, on top of this, replace the sod which 
should be root-trimmed to one inch thick, leaving the lawn level 
and smooth as before digging. 

When planting groups in the herbaceous or mixed border, if 
possible give them a partially shaded situation, making the 
groups of irregular outline and seeing that each group contains 
one variety only. 

The best soil for the DaflFodils is a deep rich brown loam 
which has been freely manured the previous Spring, and from 
which a crop of some annual flowers has been gathered. In 
August, after clearing off the asters, stocks and other Summer- 
flowering plants, spade the ground over to the depth of at least 
one foot, leave the groimd open for two or three weeks, rake the 
surface over and plant the Narcissus bulbs from four to six inches 
deep and from eight to twelve inches apart. 

As soon as the flowering season is over, and the foUage is 
ripe, which will be shown by the leaves becoming yellow, the 
bulbs should be dug up and stored away (after removing the 
dry leaves) in boxes filled with dry soil and kept in a cool dry 
cellar imtil September or October, when they should be replanted 
where they are wanted for effect the following Spring, or, if the 
space is not required, the bulbs may be left in the ground and will 
give good results the following season. 

The usual mode of propagation is by offsets which should be 
separated from the parent bulbs during the dormant season and 
planted out separately for a year in order that they may grow 
large enough for flowering. They may also be raised from seeds 
but the process is a slow one. The seeds should be sown as soon 
as ripe a quarter of an inch deep in light loamy soil, in pans or 
boxes; the second year plant out the yoimg bulblets about two 
inches apart and a quarter of an inch deep in a prepared border. 
The third year plant them in their flowering quarters as before 



Narcissus Jonothlla (Jonquil) 

Jonquils are now classed under the head of Narcissus, thriv- 
ing under the same treatment as the daffodils. Although not 
so large-growing as some of the daflFodils, they are much admired 
for their delicate fragrance and the bright golden color of their 
long narrow tubular necks and their saucer-shaped crowns. 

They should be planted about the middle of November. 


This beautiful Autunm-blooming tuberous-rooted plant is 
a native of our sister republic, Mexico, and thrives well in our 
warmer valleys and in sheltered situations in the coast counties. 
It prefers a sandy loam generously enriched, which should be 
well-cultivated by the soil being stirred and the surface hoed 
after each watering. Plant the tubers twelve inches apart, in 
early Spring, about one inch of soil covering the bulbs. They 
are much used in planting in clumps in flower-borders and shrub- 

Propagate in Winter by dividing the bulbs. 

Ranunculus Asiaticus 

There are two forms of this lovely Spring- flowering Ranim- 
culus, viz., the Persian and the Turban. The Persian has a com- 
pact symmetrical habit, the Turban being more spreading and 
larger every way ; the flowers of both sections are very beautiful 
and they both make excellent bedders. Both have numerous 
varieties and range in color from white, through all shades of 
browns and yellows, to scarlet, or they are speckled and striped 
most charmingly. 

They thrive best in a rich light soil well mixed with old cow- 
manure ; they should be carefully watered during dry weather — 

1 190] 


not overwatered, however, as they abhor stagnant moisture, too 
much water causing their foliage to become yellow and the 
flowers to become weak and short-lived. 

As soon as the flowering season is over and the leaves are 
ripe, take the roots up, remove the foliage, dry the Uttle bulblets 
and store them away in boxes filled with dry soil in a cool cellar 
until planting time arrives which should be in November. In 
planting, set them out about six inches apart and two inches 
deep, care being taken to plant them with their crowns uppermost. 

Propagate by dividing the claw-like tubers as soon as ripe, 
which is generally early in June. They flower the second year. 

RiCHARDiA Ethiopica (Colla Lily) 

This genus comprises five species of hardy South African 
Aroideae, all having handsome foliage and tall-growing elegant 
flower-spathes. They are of easy cultivation if given plenty of 
moisture; a light sandy soil, if well manured, suits them very 
well, but they also seem to thrive in heavy muck or loam if 
given plenty of water, or if partially submerged and treated as 
a semi-aquatic. 

Propagate by offsets or by dividing the roots, in Winter or 
early Spring ; plant about one foot apart, covering the tops one or 
two inches deep. 

SciLLA {Wood Hyacinth) 

The Scillas are among the most beautiful of our hardy Spring- 
flowering plants. Some of the species, being natives of Spain 
and Portugal, are specially adapted for growing here in Cali- 
fornia. They thrive well in any good garden soil, although soil 
of a light sandy loam seems to suit them best. In September, 
plant them six inches deep where wanted to bloom, selecting 



any out-of-the-way spot under the shade of trees, even the shade 
of the heaviest Pines, where few other plants will thrive. There 
are several fine spedes including many colors. 

Scilla campanulata and its variously-colored varieties make 
charming and effective groups in flower-borders and shrubberies. 

Propagate in the dormant season by separating the offsets 
from the parent bulbs and growing them on in a separate bed or 
border for one year. The following season they should be ready 
to be planted where they are to bloom. 


Few flowers are more gorgeously colored or more beautiful 
than this hardy vigorous-growing bulbous plant. It thrives well 
in any good soil and a warm sheltered situation. Plant the bulbs 
about three inches deep and six inches apart, in September or 

Propagate either by seeds sown in early Spring, covering the 
seeds about a quarter of an inch deep, or by offsets taken from 
the old bulbs during the dormant season. 


These well-known hardy Spring-flowering bulbs are very 
popular for the decoration of our gardens, and, where a good col- 
lection is grown, may be had in bloom from February to Jime. 
They thrive well in any good light loam, and, in October or early 
in November, should be planted from three to four inches deep 
where they are to bloom; plant them, with a trowel, about eight 
inches apart. 

After they have finished blooming, and their leaves become 
brown, the bulbs should be taken up from the soil and laid singly 
in a cool shaded airy shed until thoroughly ripened, when "they 
should be stored in shallow boxes and placed in an airy dark dry 
cellar until the planting season. 



In planting, care should be taken to plant in the same bed 
those varieties which bloom eariy, the same rule being followed 
with those which bloom later, for, if the late-blooming varieties 
were planted among those which flower in February or March, 
the result would be disappointing as the early species would be 
out of flower and their foliage would be brown before the late- 
blooming species began to show color. 

Propagate by offsets taken from the parent bulbs when they 
are lifted ; these offsets should be grown by themselves imtil large 
enough for flowering. 





very ornamental genus of Palm is a native of 

:w Zealand and is not hardy where the tem- 

rature falls below twenty-eight degrees Fahren- 

it. From Santa Barbara south it forms grand 

3irticimens,and also In some favored localities farther 

north if planted under the shade of other trees and away from 

cold draughts. It thrives best in a light sandy soil well enriched 

with old well-decomposed manure. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in February or March, one inch 
deep in a hotbed or in a warm greenhouse. When the seedlings 
are about four inches high, plant them in three-inch pots and give 
them more room as growth advances. 


The Chamserops are among the hardiest of our fan Palms 
while they are also free-growing and easily transplanted. Cha- 
maerops humilis, which is a native of the Mediterranean regions, 
is of a dwarf habit; Chamserops excelsa, which is from China, 
is of a more stately habit, sometimes attaining a height of thirty 
feet and growing handsome crowns of deeply cut fan-shaped 

They delight in plenty of water and a well-drained soil. 

Propagate by seeds sown one inch deep, in heat, in early 
Spring; when they are four inches high, pot them in three-inch 
pots; when thej' are one year old, plant them in the open ground 
in nursery rows. They may also be propagated by suckers taken 
from the base of old plants in early Spring. 


Coco* plumosa as Sidewalk Tree. 



Cocos australis, the hardiest of the genus, is worthy of more 
attention from planters than it has received in the past and should 
do well in all of our valley counties. Cocos plumosa, a native of 
Southern Brazil, does surprisingly well in Southern California 
from Santa Barbara south, where avenues of them may be seen. 
They frequently attain a height of forty feet and make grand 
objects of stately beauty. 

Propagate by seeds planted, in March, one inch deep in a 
warm greenhouse and grown on in pots until four feet high when 
they may be planted out of doors in a situation protected from 
frosts and harsh winds, until large enough to be planted in their 
permanent quarters. 


The Erytheas are natives of this coast and perfectly hardy 
in all the valley and coast counties, so grow well in any garden 
soil with ordinary treatment. 

Erythea armata, commonly called the Blue Palm, is of slow 
growth and very distinct in habit and in the color of its leaves 
which are of a bluish grey and deeply cut. Erythea edulis is a 
much quicker grower, having larger leaves of deep green. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in Spring, one inch deep in a warm 
greenhouse or in a mild hotbed and grown in pots for at least one 
year when they may be planted in the nursery. 


Jubaea spectabilis or Wine Palm of Chile is one of our hardiest 
palms, growing well even in San Francisco. It has much the 
same habit as the Date Palm family but differs from them in its 
closer habit and heavier foliage, being an excellent palm for small 
gardens as it is of slow growth and formal habit and is not par- 
ticular as to soil. 



Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, one inch deep in 
a hotbed or warm greenhouse; give pot room as required. 


A genus of palms comprising several species all bearing hand- 
some fan-shaped leaves. 

Livistonia australis is hardy as far north as San Francisco. 
Livistonia Chinensis, not being so hardy, should not be planted 
out of doors north of Santa Barbara unless well-sheltered and 
partially shaded. 

Propagate by seeds sown in heat one inch deep, in early 
Spring. When the seedlings are about four inches high, plant 
them in Hght rich soil in three-inch pots. Transplant them into 
larger pots as the young plants require the space. 

Phoenix Canarlensls. 




The Phoenix Canariensis is without doubt the most hardy and 
most popular of the genus, growing well in any garden soil and 
standing considerable exposure to wind. Phoenix reclinata is 
also very popular. It is elegant in habit but not so vigorous a 
grower as the preceding, requiring a sheltered situation away 
from harsh winds and frost. There are several other species such 
as Phoenix rubicola, Phoenix sylvestris, Phoenix Zeylanica, Phoenix 
dactylifera, etc., all fairly hardy and easily grown. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in early Springy one inch deep in a 
hotbed or in a warm greenhouse. Plant them in three-inch pots 
when the seedlings are about four inches high, and give them more 
room as growth advances. 


The Cane Palm of Japan is an elegant dwarf-growing palm 
with cane-like stems and crowns of palmate leaves, admirable 
for pot culture and for places in rooms or verandas. If planted 
out of doors it should be given a shaded sheltered situation free 
from draughts or cold winds. There are several species and var- 
ieties of this most interesting palm all worthy of a place in any 

Propagation is effected by division of the roots in early Spring. 

Sabal Palmetto 

The Cabbage Palm of Florida is another of the fan palms 
which do well in our gardens and should be found in every good 
collection. It is hardy, standing considerable exposure and is 
not particular as to soil. 

There are several species belonging to the genus such as Sabal 
Blackbumiana, Sabal Mexicana, Sabal umbraculifera, etc. 



Propagate by sowing the seeds one inch deep, in early Spring, 
in a warm greenhouse; pot them when four inches high, and give 
them more room both at top and root as required. 

Seaforthia Elegans 

The Seaforthia is one of the most elegant and free-growing 
of the palm family. From Santa Barbara south it is perfectly 
hardy, ripening its seeds in the open air. 

Propagate by seeds sown one-half inch deep in Spring, the 
seeds starting freely and growing rapidly m, a warm greenhouse 
or hotbed; transplant them into three-inch pots when they are 
from four to six inches high and give them more pot room as 


The well-known California Fan Palm is without doubt the 
stateliest of all our palms whether native or introduced. It 
delights in a good soil, deep and well drained, and a plentiful 
supply of water at the root during the growing season. 

Washingtonia filifera is not recommended for cold exposed 
situations in San Francisco, the Summer being too cold for its 
making vigorous growth, but south of San Francisco and in the 
interior counties as far north as Butte county it is perfectly at 
home and grows vigorously. Washingtonia Sonorae is much more 
hardy, growing well even in San Francisco. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, one-half inch deep 
under glass and kept in pots until one year old; they may then 
be planted in the nursery and left there until large enough to be 
planted in their permanent quarters. 

[ 200] 

Natural Croup of Washingtoniai (California Fan Palmt). 




[N THE formation of a Fernery, a location partially- 
shaded and yet not exposed to draughts or harsh 
winds should be selected. 

A situation facing East or a Northerly slope 
suits the great majority of hardy Ferns, and, as 
they are generally found as imdergrowth in woods or rocky 
ledges, on the banks of streams or creeks, or in shady spots in 
marshy ground, these conditions should be imitated as closely as 
possible, a rocky dell shaded with deciduous trees being an ideal 
spot in which to establish a Fernery. 

Of course many of the hardier, stronger growers do fairly 
well under practically any tree or in partial shade of almost 
any kind, but a situation, such as has been described, will be 
found from results to be very much the best. 

The decision as to the selection of the site may be influenced 
by whether the intention is to plant the Ferns on the ordinary 
ground level or to have a Rock Fernery. 

If the Ferns are to be planted without introducing rocks or 
stumps, all that is necessary is to see that the soil is of the proper 
character. It should be light, rich and porous, so that water will 
pass through it freely. If the natural soil is heavy loam or of 
a clayey nature, it should either be removed to the depth of one 
foot, and a foot of light soil filled in, or the foot of light soil 
should be spread over the surface of the original ground. 

The very best soil for growing Ferns is composed of one- 
quarter peat, one-quarter sandy loam, one-quarter sharp sand 
and one-quarter leaf-mold, all having been thoroughly mixed 
together a month before being used. 

1 203] 


Should a Rockery effect be desired in conjunction with the 
Fernery, place the rocks (which should be if possible of a porous 
nature) on top of the soil, allowing a layer of soil of at least 
one-half of an inch to lie between each rock; avoid building 
the so-called pockets into the Rockery as this invariably leads to 
sour soil, and sour soil means sickly plants. 

The comfort of the plants should be the first consideration 
and should not be sacrificed to the appearance of the rockwork. 

When the rockwork is finished, the plants should be got 
together and a system of planting laid out. The larger Ferns, 
including the Tree Ferns, should first be arranged and planted; 
afterwards those of medium growth should be placed in their 
positions, and then the smaller and dwarf kinds. 

The best Tree Ferns for the beginner to experiment with are 
the Dicksbnia antarctica and the Alsophila australis as they 
are both vigorous growers and are among the noblest and most 
beautiful of any. When planting, set them out in group-form 
irregularly and from five to ten feet apart; under and among 
them plant such kinds as Woodwardia, the stronger growing 
Asplenium, Polystichum, Lastraea, Polypodium, Osmunda, Blech- 
num brasiliense, Pteris tremula, and also our native Sword Fern. 
Then, to finish the group, plant, near the walk, the smaller 
and dwarf species such as the Five-finger F gm, the peer Fern , 
Blechnum Spicant, Scolopendrium, Adiantmn Capillus veneris, 
Cystopteris fragilis, Woodsia, etc. 

The most of the foregoing are evergreen, deUghting m per- 
petual moisture, and should be given every attention in the way 
of watering, their roots never being allowed to get the least dry. 
During dry weather they should be sprinkled at least once a day 
overhead, water that is not too cold being used; water drawn 
direct from city mains or from artesian wells is much too cold 
for use in sprinkling or watering ferns or other dehcately f oliaged 
plants. Especially should care be taken in watering the smaller 
kinds which should always be watered with the watering-pot, 


Group of Tree Ferns. 


the water having been aerated and warmed by contact with the 
atmosphere before being used. 

The season for planting is from November until growth com- 
mences, which is generally in February. When planting, see 
that the soil is of the nature recommended; plant moderately 
firm and not too deep. 

Ferns grown in pots require repotting more or less frequently. 
This must be very carefully done, it being remembered that these 
plants make their most luxuriant growth after they have covered 
the inside of the pots with a network of their roots. The repot- 
ting may be done at any season, but early Spring, just before 
growth commences, is regarded as the best season for the work. 
In repotting, see that the pots are clean and dry; should new pots 
be used, they must be put in water and allowed to remain there a 
sufficiently long time to become thoroughly soaked; they should 
then be well dried before being used. New pots absorb great 
quantities of water, and, unless they are well soaked before being 
used, it often happens that the first two or three waterings, 
instead of watering the roots of the plant, serve to only soak the 
pot, while the balls of earth, which the pots contain, become so 
dry that it is difficidt to again get them moistened. When pre- 
paring pots, see that the proper amount of drainage is put in. 
First place one piece of broken potsherd over the hole in the 
bottom of the pot, then fill the pot about one-fifth of its depth 
with clean, broken potsherds; cover this drainage material with 
moss to keep the soil from mixing with it. The soil should con- 
sist of two parts sandy fibrous loam, one part of leaf-mold and 
one part of peat with enough coarse sharp sand to keep the whole 
open and porous. 





HE Bamboo is a genera! favorite with all lovers of 
beauty of form in plant life. It is an evergreen 
indigenous plant belonging to the grass family. 
The Bamboo delights in a li^t, rich soil, a well- 
sheltered situation and plenty of water at the 
roots during the growing season, but stagnant water is fatal 
to it. The bank of a perennial stream and the side of a sheltered 
lake or pool, where the crowns are planted a foot or two above the 
water level, are ideal spots for the growing of the Bamboo, while 
a good mulching of well-rotted manure once a year encourages 
the plants to send up strong and graceful stems. The more shel- 
tered they are from wind the better; especially must they be 
protected from our strong Summer west winds. A background 
of our native Pinus insignis or any deep-green tree or shrub, shows 
off the Bamboo to very good advantage, or, if a more graceful 
combination is desired, the Bamboo can be mixed with the Birch, 
and the effect wiD be most pleasing, especially if the golden- 
stemmed Bambusa aurea is used and the group is a large one. 

In planting the Bamboo in groups, it is inadvisable to plant 
the strong rampant growers, such as Anmdinaria M£tak€, etc., 
along with the more flexible Phyllostachys henonis or any of 
the non-suckermg species, as the spreading rhizomes of the 
strong growers will run into the roots of the more delicate kinds, 
rob them of their required sustenance and eventually starve 
them to death. 

For single specimens on the lawn in sheltered nooks, the 
Arundinaria falcata is one of the most graceful; it grows to the 


height of about twenty feet, each stem droopmg gracefully from 
the center and forming a very pleasing effect. 

The Bambusa family is divided into several sections. The 
Anmdinaria has a straight round stem which the branches nearly 
encircle. These appear simultaneously along the whole length 
of the stem, and at each joint, the sheaths of the young branches 
being carried until late in the season, this giving a rather unkempt 
appearance to the plant; Anmdinaria Simonii and Arundinaria 
Japonica seem to carry them much longer than the other species. 

The Phyllostachys, on the contrary, begin to open their 
branches at the lower end of the stem and gradually develop 
them upwards. The Phyllostachys also, instead of having a per- 
fectly round stem, have a double furrow along the stem, this 
being caused by the pressure of the branches against the stem 
while in a soft state. 

Propagate by division of the roots and by cuttings. The best 
time to propagate the Bamboo by division of the roots, which is 
a very simple process, is in the end of March. The plants should 
be taken up and divided into small clumps of two or three stems 
each with their jointed roots attached (there being left as much 
earth aroimd the roots as possible) and planted about two feet 
apart, in good, fresh, light loamy soil. They should be given a 
good watering and a mulching with half-rotted manure. They 
may be planted at once where they are to remain. 

Propagation by cuttings is effected by taking up the under- 
ground stems, or rhizomes as they are called, in March or April, 
cutting them into lengths of from six to eight inches, plantmg 
them in light sandy loam, about four inches deep, and givmg them 
water as required. See that only roots of the previous year's 
growth are used as all older rhizomes will be failures, only the 
yoimg rhizomes being reproductive. 

Among the species which thrive well and are perfectly hardy 
may be mentioned the Arundinaria f alcata, Arundinaria Hindsia, 
Arundinaria Simonii, Anmdinaria Japonica, Phyllostachys aurea, 



Phyllostachys henonis, Phyllostachys nigra, Bambusa marmorea, 
Bambusa quadrangularis and Bambusa palmata while many 
others are worthy of a choice place in our gardens. 

Groups of Mixed Grasses 

Very pretty combinations can be made by planting mixed 
grasses; for instance, by planting one or more of the Bamboos in 
the center of the group, with a line of the stately Arundo Donax 
and Arundo conspicua alternately around the Bamboos, and, 
in front of and around the Anmdo plants, a line of the Pampas 
Grasses, then, in front of and around the Pampas Grasses, a row 
of Eulalia Japonica and its varieties intermixed perhaps with 
Erianthus Ravennae, finishing the group with Orchard Grasses 
and Feather-Grass (Stipa pennata). 

Other and smaller groups can be planted, leaving out the 
stronger growing, or handsome groups can be formed, leaving 
out the dwarf growers, or again, a carpet can be made of the 
dwarf forms, planting the taller growers a few feet apart and 
allowing the character of the smaller species to be seen between 
the stems of the Bamboos or Arundos. 

Pampas Grass 

This fine plant is so well known that it requires no descrip- 
tion, for at least one or two plants are to be found in every gar- 
den of any pretension, and yet it is worthy of better treatment 
than it often receives. It should be given a deep good soil well- 
enriched with manure, a sheltered situation and plenty of water 
during the Summer months; imder these conditions the reward 
will be a great mass of graceful foUage and a splendid group of 
noble plumes in the early Fall. 

Propagate by dividing the roots in February or March. 



Several garden varieties have been raised, some with pink 
plumes, which are very effective. 


Tall perennial bamboo-like grasses growing, in good soil and 
suitable situation, to the height of twenty-five feet, the stems 
being upright in habit with broad leaves which droop hand- 
somely. All of the species are highly ornamental either when 
planted as single specimens on the lawn or when grouped in 
masses with bamboos or with other ornamental grasses. 

The Arundo delights in a light rich soil, a sheltered situation 
and plenty of water at the roots during the growing season. 
Anmdo Donax and its variegated variety and Arundo conspicua 
will be foimd the most useful of the genus. 

Propagation is effected by division of the roots in early Spring. 


This is one of the most handsome of the grass family and 
grows to the height of from four to six feet, topped with a feathery 
plume which is very ornamental. 

It forms an excellent border plant and is also well-suited for 
grouping with other grasses such as the Pampas grass or the tall 
Anmdo Donax. 

It is easily increased by division of the roots in Spring. 

There are several varieties of the EulaUa, some of them with 
striped cream-colored bands running through the middle of the 
leaves, and others with bars of yellow running crosswise. 





1HE Succulents include many very handsome and 
interesting plants, extremely varied in their char- 
acter, most of them having thick fleshy leaves 
or stems. Many are useful for planting in dry 
sandy or rocky banks, and for covering, with gay 
colors and interesting foliage, poor spots of dry soil which are 
out of reach of water or too barren to sustain any other class of 
plant. Among the large number which are perfectly hardy and 
very ornamental are many of the Cactus, Agave and the large 
family of Mesembryanthemum and Portulaca, also the gorgeous 
free-flowering Crassula, etc. 

Collections of Succulents should be planted in the dryest and 
best-sheltered portions of the garden. They should be watered 
very sparingly during only very dry weather, and even then only 
when the plants show signs of flagging or wilting. The soil best 
suited for most of them is a dry, rocky, well-drained, loose, light 
loam such as is used in rockeries, for growing in which most of 
the Succulents are admirably adapted. 

Agave (Cenlury-Plant) 

This common inhabitant of our gardens is one of the most 
stately and characteristic of our California garden landscape 
plants, its massive fleshy foliage, when full-grown, making a fine 
effect in the sub-tropical gardens, and being excellent for large 
vase-work in front of buildings or the decoration of terrace walks, 
etc. It is a very slow grower, not attaining its full growth until 
fifteen or twenty years old, when (and not until then) it sends 
up its tall column-like flower-scape to the height of from thirty- 


five to forty feet, or more, with a diameter of stem of over six 
inches at the base. The flower-scape makes a growth of six 
inches every twenty-four hours, drawing its sustenance seemingly 
from the thick large fleshy leaves. As the flower-stalk grows 
in height, the leaves gradually become thin and flabby until the 
flower-scape attains its full height, when the leaves are com- 
pletely drained of all sap and flesh and become shriveled, Ufeless 
pieces of fibre. After perfecting the flower, and ripening its seeds, 
the whole plant dies to the ground and is succeeded by a colony 
of suckers which form about the roots of the old plant. These 
should be taken up late in the Fall and planted in nursery rows 
about a foot or eighteen inches apart, and should be grown on 
until large enough to be planted out in permanent quarters 
There is quite a large number of interesting species belonging to 
this genus, some of them with variegated leaves and others with 
rosette-like bunches of leaves and of dwarf habit. 


These interesting plants are mostly natives of the Cape of 
Good Hope, some of them becom- 
ing arborescent and branched, and 
growing to the height of sixty feet. 
They delight in a loose rocky soil 
and a warm sunny situation, and 
require little artificial irrigation. 

They are mostly of very slow 
growth although Aloe ciliaris makes 
several feet of growth in a season. 
Most of them bear red or yellow 
flowers in stiff spikes, which, com- 
bined with their rugged grotesque 
habit, make them excellent for 
planting in dry rockeries, etc. 

Aloe vera. 



Propagate in early Spring by seeds, suckers or cuttings; 
cover the seeds to a depth of one-quarter of an inch. 


This most interesting genus contains many hardy species, 
and collections should be seen in our gardens more commonly 
than they are. Most of them are of easy culture, provided they 
are not excessively watered or planted in a too adhesive soil. 
They all prefer a warm dry sunny situation and a Ught sandy 
soil well drained; the soil should also contain a small percentage 
of lime; mixing a quantity of lime-rubbish with the soil not 
only gives the soil the necessary amount of lime but also serves 
as a drainage medium. 

The Cereus type contains many of the most gorgeously-col- 
ored and largest-sized flowers of the genus. 

The Echinocactus, with its prickly oval or round-shaped 
ribbed grotesque form makes excellent specimens for the rockery 
or desert garden. 

The Mammillarias with their beautiful forms, their rosy, yel- 
low or white flowers and their delicate designs are indispensable 
in all collections. 

The Opuntia, or Indian Fig, or Prickly Pear, is the most 
common and also the easiest to grow of all the Cactus family. 
It is well known throughout the State both as an ornamental and 
a hedge plant for which purpose it is exceedingly useful, as no 
animal, however hardy, will attempt to break through it on 
account of the strong sharp spines which the plant sends out in 
all directions. 

The Phyllocactus is known by its flat leaves, its long calyx 
tubes and large gorgeously-colored or white flowers. 

Several of the genus are natives of CaUfomia, among which 
may be mentioned Mammillaria Goodrichii, Mammillaria Gra- 
hamiana, Echinocactus viridescens, Echinocactus polycephalus, 



Cereus Emoryii, Cereus giganteus, Opiintia littoralis, Opiintia 
ficus indica, Opuritia prolifera, etc. 

The Cactus is propagated most commonly by cuttings late 
in Spring. The cuttings should be removed with a sharp knife, 
and laid in a dry place until bleeding stops and the woimds are 
dried. They should then be inserted in sand imtil they emit roots 
when they may be planted in their permanent places. 

Cotyledon (Echeveria) 

A genus of succulent herbs or shrubs, comprising about sixty 
species most of them natives of California, Mexico and Southern 
Africa. They are useful in formal bedding, 
and for rockwork where little or no arti- 
ficial irrigation is given. A very mteresting 
and effective rockwork is that planted with 
the different kinds of Cotyledons, Semper- 
vivums, Mesembryanthemums, Sedums, 
Crassulas, etc., and, as these all grow and 
bloom profusely without artificial water- 
ing, many waste spots, which otherwise 
might be left to weeds and Utter, can thus 
be made attractive. 

The Cotyledons are very easily propa- 
gated by cuttings made from the stems in 
September. Strip them of leaves for about Echeveria. 

two inches, and, after cutting the ends with a sharp knife, insert 
them in sandy soil in a simny situation, giving them very Uttle 
water imtil they have formed roots which will be in two or three 
weeks. They may also be propagated by leaf cuttings, by simply 
parting the individual full-grown leaves from the stem, care 
being taken when parting them that the dormant bud at the axil 
of each leaf accompanies it. Insert them in sandy soil, about one- 
quarter of an inch deep, and give them a little water for two weeks 



or until they have formed roots. If the cuttings are put in in 
September or early in October, they will be ready for setting out 
the following Spring. 


This beautiful succulent from Table Moimtain is one of the 
best plants for planting on rocky hillsides or ledges as it grows 

freely without care or watering if given 
a handful of soil in which to start. 
Plant the young plants early in Feb- 
ruary and give them a little water to 
settle the soil about the roots; they 
afterwards will take care of themselves. 
When planted on a sunny slope 
(preferably facing the East) in loose, 
well-drained soil, with a backgroimd 
of low-growing, dark foliage, such as 
dwarf Pine, Cypress or Jimiper, it is 
very effective as it also is in the rockery 
among other succulents, such as the 
large-leaved Echeverias and Sedums 
or the smaller Mesembryanthemum. 

There are many species of this interesting genus, including 
Crassula arborescens which grows to the height of three feet and 
has rose-colored flowers, and Crassula coccinea, the best known 
of the species, bearing scarlet flowers of a most dazzling hue 
which entirely cover the plant. Others bearing white flowers 
are also very pretty. 

Propagate by cuttings, placed in sandy loam in a cold frame, 
in September; give them just enough water to keep the leaves 
from wilting. 

Crassula coccinea. 

[ 222 ] 



A genus of over three hundred species, mostly succulent per- 
ennials or annuals which make excellent plants for covering dry 
banks or borders, and, where 
water is scarce, and where they 
are not likely to be trampled 
over, a good substitute for grass, 
many species being of a creeping 
spreading habit, hugging the 
ground closely and forming a 
carpet of rich green. Mesembry- 
anthenium spectabile and Me- 
sembryanthemum versicolor are 
chiefly grown for the blaze of 
color they give during sunshine. 
Mesembryanthemum jequilater- 
ale, Mesembryanthemum auS- MMembryanthemum specUbile. 

trails, etc., are mostly used for covering rocky banks, sand flats, 
and slopes, etc. 

The Mesembryanthemum is not used so freely as it ought to be. 
Many waste pieces of ground, dry shifting steep slopes, railroad 
embankments, etc., now of a neglected, unkempt appearance, 
could be planted with any of the stronger-growing, thick-leaved 
species of this genus which, in addition to making a covering for 
the ground, would hold the slopes or embankments from sliding 
or from being moved by the elements. Mesembryanthemum 
australis (white-flowered) is the best for this purpose as it is a 
hardy, strong grower and a deep rooter, forming a dense, thick 
carpet of heavy stems difficult to move or wash out of position. 

Propagate by inserting cuttings, in Spring, about six inches 

^art, where they are to bloom, or where wanted, first preparing 

the ground by cultivating (either by plowing or spading) and 

raking it over to make it smooth on the surface, breaking any 



lumps which may be left, so that, in planting, the dibble may be 
worked easily and quickly. 


Sedum is a genus of over one himdred species most of them 
with fleshy leaves and yellow, white or pink flowers, although one 

or two, such as Sedum 
sempervivum, have scarlet 
flowers. Sedums are of 
very easy culture, prefer- 
ring a light sandy soil and 
a sunny situation and being 
exceedingly useful for cov- 
ering dry banks and rocky 
ridges away from the hose 
or in the thinnest soils. 
They are also effective for window-boxes or for carpet-bedding. 

Propagate by cuttings placed in sandy soil in a sunny shel- 
tered situation in Spring, or by seeds sown in February. Cover 
the seeds to the depth of one-eighth of an inch. When the seed- 
lings are an inch or two high, prick them off, two inches apart, 
in pots or boxes, planting them in their permanent places in May. 


Sempervivum (Hotiseleek) 

A genus comprising fifty or sixty species, natives of Madeira, 
Asia Minor, Abyssinia and the Western Himalayas, bearing 
white, pink, yellow or purpUsh flowers and thick fleshy leaves, 
useful in carpet-bedding and for small rockwork. 

Propagate by offsets taken from the parent plant in early 
Spring and planted in any sunny situation, in light sandy soil, 
about two inches apart. 




herbaceous and beddmo plants 


HE Acanthus is a group of stately ornamental 
plants of vigorous growth and handsome foliage. 
To grow well, they require rich, deep soil well- 
fertilized with old manure, and plenty of water 
during the Simmier naonths. They show their 
character best when grown in single tufts, at the bend of a walk, 
on a bed of turf and in a sheltered, half-shaded situation. Acan- 
thus mollis latifolius. Acanthus niger. Acanthus spinosus and sev- 
eral other species are all very desirable for giving tropical effects 
in Summer or Wmter. 

Propagate by dividmg the roots or by seeds sown in Spring, 
imder glass in gentle heat, covering the seeds to the depth of an 
eighth of an inch. Pot the young seedlings singly when they are 
an inch or two high, and plant them out of doors when they are 
three or four inches high. 


A small genus of hardy annuals, bearing everlasting flowers 
of many shades of rose and white. They are very easily grown in 
any garden soil. 

Sow the seeds out of doors in April, in patches where they are 
to bloom, covering the seeds to the depth of about one-eighth of 
an inch; when the young seedlings are two or three inches high, 
thin them to six inches apart and mulch the surface with one-half 
inch of old well-decomposed manure, giving water when necessary. 



This well-known Summer-flowering plant is a general favorite 
on account of its pretty blue flow- 
ers and long-continued season of 
profuse blooming. A good light 
loam well-enriched with old manure 
will grow it well. Plant the dwarf 
varieties six inches apart, and the 
tall species about fifteen inches 

Propagate by cuttings in Sep- 
tember, in a cold frame or green- 
house; in Winter protect them from 
frosts; plant them out of doors as 
soon as the danger from cold 
Agerahim. weather is over. 


Hardy evergreen perennials and annuals with lance-shaped 
leaves and star-shaped flowers. They are of easy culture, grow- 
ing freely in any soil and (being mostly natives of Southern 
Europ>e) requiring little water. They are also well adapted for 
ornamenting dry banks if planted after the first rains in Autumn. 
Seeds of the annual species should be sown in August in a cold 
frame or in a sheltered border; barely cover the seeds with finely 
sifted sandy soil; plant them out in October and they will begin 
flowering in April. The perennial species, such as Agrostemma 
coronaria, are increased by division of the roots, the early Winter 
being the best season for their division. 

Althaea rosea (Hollyhock) 

The Hollyhock is one of our old favorite garden plants, 
indispensable for producing bold striking color effects in our 


flower-borders and shrubberies. It delights in a rich light soil 
and an open sunny situation. 

Seeds should be sown as soon as ripe, in September or early 
in October, either in an open sheltered spot out of doors or in 
a cold frame, being covered to the depth of a quarter of an inch. 
As soon as the seedlings are large enough to be handled, prick 
them out about three inches apart in boxes, or singly in three- 
inch pots, in hght rich soil composed of one-quarter very old 
manure, one-half good surface loam and one-quarter leaf-mold 
with enough sand to keep the soil open, all well-mixed together 
by having been turned over several times. Plant them out, 
where they are to bloom, in February or early in March, in 
specially prepared, well-cultivated soil enriched with well- 
decayed manure, the ground having been dug two feet deep and 
the manure mixed freely with the soil. When the flower-spikes 
appear, mulch the ground about the roots with a heavy dressing 
of half-rotten manure and support the flower-stalk by a good 
stiff stake eight feet long by two inches square tapering to one 
inch square at the top, the stake being sharpened and driven two 
feet into the ground. The roots should be given a fair supply of 
water but over-watering must be guarded against, as too much 
water seems to encourage the Hollyhock fungus, a disease which 
has ruined many fine plants. Should this disease make its ap- 
p>earance, pick off the affected leaves at once and bum them up 
to prevent it spreading. 

The Hollyhock, in addition to being propagated by seeds, 
may be increased by cuttings of the young shoots which grow 
up from the old root. These should be taken off when about 
three or four inches long, and placed in a shady sheltered spot, 
in soil composed of sand and leaf-mold, until rooted, when 
they may be treated as recommended for seedlings. 




A genus of hardy annuals or shrubby perennials, very free- 
flowering and excellent for planting on dry banks and among 
hardy shrubs, for covering the ground, or for rock work. Alys- 
sum alpestre, or Sweet Alyssum, is raised by simply sowing the 
seeds, in Winter or early Spring, where wanted, covering them 
lightly with light soil; thin the plants to about six inches apart. 
Alyssum saxatile, and other shrubby species, are best propagated 
by cuttings placed in a cold frame in September and shaded for 
about two weeks or until rooted, when they should be gradually 
exposed to light and air and placed out of doors until wanted. 


Hardy annuals with alternate entire leaves and small red or 
green flowers in clustered spikes. They are mostly grown for 
their handsome reddish-colored leaves and graceful habit of 
growth. They require rich soil, a sheltered situation and a gen- 
erous supply of water to develop their full beauty. Amarantus 
bicolor, Amarantus salicifolius and Aniarantus tricolor will 
be found among the best species for general planting. 

Propagate by seeds sown in February, in sUght bottom heat, 
in a glass frame. Cover the seeds to the depth of an eighth of 
an inch. 


An extensive genus of hardy ornamental perennials with 
ranunculus-like flowers and variously-shaped leaves, some species 
(such as Anemone Japonica) growing to a height of three or 
four feet, and others (such as Anemone hepatica) growing only 
a few inches high. Some are suitable for borders, wWle others 
(such as Anemone coronaria) are best grown in beds of rich 
light soil, in a sheltered, partially-shaded situation. The tuber- 
ous-rooted species should be planted in October or early in 



November, about six inches apart and three inches deep, and 
if, in addition, there is planted a carpet of Pansies, or, better 
still, of the blue-flowering Arabis, a most charming effect will be 
produced. After flowering and as soon as the leaves turn yellow, 
the tubers should be taken up and spread thinly in a shady airy 
place until they are dry, when the leaves should be taken off the 
tubers, and the tubers stored, in a cool dry place, in boxes of dry 
soil until the planting season. 

Anemone fulgens is a perennial species and prefers a moist 
situation and partial shade, but does well under any ordinarj'^ 
garden treatment. Anemone Japonica makes an admirable 
border plant, easily grown and propagated by division of the 
root. For cutting purposes this species and its white variety are 

Antirrhinum (Snapdragoi^) 

This popular genus contains many species, but Antirrhinum 
majus is the most popular and useful, its long racemes of many- 
colored flowers being excellent for filling beds, for decorating the 
herbaceous borders, or for planting among low-growing shrubs. 
Their cultivation is easy, as they grow well in any garden soil. 

They are easily propagated either by seeds or cuttings, but 
the simplest way is by sowing a packet of seeds in early March 
under glass, covering the seeds to the depth of one-eighth of an 
inch; prick out the yoimg seedlings, as soon as they are fit to 
be handled, three inches apart in boxes, placing the boxes in a 
cold frame and shading for a few days. After they are hardened 
off, they are ready to be planted in their permanent quarters. 

ITie seeds may be sown out of doors, in a sheltered spot, in 
early Fall, and thinned to six inches apart, or transplanted to 
where they are to remain, and, if a succession of bloom is de- 
sired, another lot may be sown in April and treated as recom- 
mended for those sown in Fall. 



Aquilegia (Columbine) 

Erect, hardy perennial herbs, flowering in panicles. The 
Columbines love a semi-shaded situation, well-sheltered from 
harsh winds and strong sunshine, preferably under the shelter 
of low-growing deciduous shrubs. They also do well in the open 
groimd, but under these conditions their flowers lack the delicate 
tinting of those grown in the light shade ; any soil not too heavy, 
if well drained, will suit them. 

Seeds are produced in abundance, and should be sown, 
covered to the depth of one-eighth of an inch, in the Fall (or 
as soon as practicable after they are ripe) in a shady place con- 
venient to water; as soon as they are strong enough to be re- 
moved, they should be planted where they are to flower. 

There are many handsome species including our native 
species, Aquilegia chrysantha (yellow tinged with red), Aquilegia 
caerulea from the Rocky Mountains (sky blue) and Aquilegia 
glandulosa, etc., all of them well deserving a place in our gardens. 


The Chinese Annual Asters are too well known to require 
description, their diversity of color and compact habit of growth 
rendering them almost universal favorites. They delight in a 
cool moist loamy soil enriched with well-decomposed horse- or 

The seeds should be sown, early in March, either out of doors 
or imder glass, in pans, pots or boxes in light sandy soil, and 
covered very lightly with sandy leaf -mold; water lightly and 
keep the soil moderately moist until they germinate ; as soon as 
they make an inch of growth prick them out, about three inches 
apart, in light rich soU and grow them on until they are about four 
inches high; harden them off in a sheltered place out of doors, 
and plant them about one foot apart where they are to flower; 



about two weeks after they have been planted, mulch the entire 
surface of the soil, between the plants, with about one-half inch of 
rotten manure and give a good watering. To produce fine flowers, 
the Aster should never suffer from lack of water and should receive 
a good drenching at least once a week; should extra large flowers 
be desired, the flowers should be thinned to about five or six to 
a plant, and the plant supported by a neat stake. 


Where a dense cushion effect of deep blue is desired in early 
Spring, procure a packet of Aubrietia seeds and sow in the open 
where they are to flower, covering the seeds very lightly; Sep- 
tember is the best time to sow. As soon as the seedlings are well 
up, thin them to three inches apart and encourage them by 
watering, never allowing the soil to become very dry. They may 
also be sown in September in a cold frame, and transplanted in 
November or December to where they are to bloom. Where 
there is a stock of old plants they may be propagated by cuttings 
any time after flowering. There are several varieties, all of them 
very useful for carpet effects in early Spring. 



A large genus of succulent herbs with tuberous or fibrous 
roots and showy flowers or leaves. Most of the richly-colored 
flowers and handsomely-marked leaves are the result of hybri- 
dizing by specialists, who have, by cross-fertilizing and high 
cultivation succeeded in raising the Begonia to the high esti- 
mation in which it is now held for indoor and outdoor decora- 
tion. The hardier varieties of the tuberous section, and also 
the Vernon types, make excellent plants for bedding, and the tall 
stately Begonia rubra, if given a sheltered position, forms grand 
specimens, especially in our coast counties. 



The tuberous Begonia should be much more generally seen 

in our gardens than it is, as it is very hardy, is easily grown and 

remains longer in bloom than most of our Summer-flowering 

plants, commencing to flower early in June and giving a profusion 

of gorgeously-colored blossoms until 

late in November. 

The Begonia delights in an 
eastern exposure, a sheltered, par- 
tially shaded situation, a light 
rich loamy soil and plenty of mois- 
ture at the root during the grow- 
ing season. Anyone giving the 
tuberous Begonia these simple con- 
ditions will be generously rewarded 
for the little trouble and expense 
devoted to this beautiful exotic. 
As soon as flowering is over, 
B«goni> Vemon. ^j^^ tuberous-rooted species should 

be taken up, the tubers cleaned and dried in a cool airy shed, and 
afterwards packed in dry soil and laid away in a cool place until 
March, when they should be potted singly, in pots a little larger 
than the tubers, in soil composed of one-third loam, one-third 
leaf-mold, and one-third sand with a sprinkling of old manure 
mixed through the compost. Place the pots in a cool frame, and, 
when the yoimg plants make from four to six inches of growth, 
plant them out where they are to flower. The Vemon type is 
propagated by seeds sown and covered very lightly with finely 
sifted sandy leaf-mold, in February, the young plants being 
pricked out three mches apart in pots or boxes as soon as they 
are large enough to be handled, and planted out, about the first 
of May, where wanted to bloom. They may also be easily in- 
creased by dividing the roots of the previous year's growth just 
before growth commences in the Spring. 



Bellis (Daisy) 

The Bellis perennis or common Daisy is a well-known hardy 
free-flowering border plant, growing well in any garden soil and 
easily increased by simply dividing the roots inmiediately after 
flowering, each crown making a separate plant. It may also be 
raised from seeds, but as a large percentage of seeds obtained are 
single-flowered, it is much safer and more satisfactory to propa- 
gate by dividing the roots. In propagating from seeds, the seeds 
should be covered to the depth of an eighth of an inch. 


A genus of tall, stately, herbaceous, ornamental-leaved plants 
with terminal panicles of inconspicuous flowers; an excellent 
plant for giving subtropical effects m conjunction with other 
large-leaved plants, or as single specimens on the lawn. To grow 
their handsome cordate leaves to their full size requires a deep, 
rich soil shd abundance of water. Bocconia cordata (from 
Japan), Bocconia frutescens (from Mexico) and Bocconia inte- 
grifolia (a native of Peru) will be found the best species for 
growing m this latitude. 

Propagate by taking up, in early Spring, the young suckers 
which form about the roots, and planting them in nursery rows 
imtil the following season. They are also easily propagated by 
seeds sown in Spring in a sheltered spot in the open border ; cover 
the seeds to the depth of one-quarter of an inch. 


A genus of fleshy smooth-stemmed annuals or perennials 
mostly natives of Australia, ChUe and California. Their culti- 
vation is very simple and they grow freely in any soil or exposure 
not too much shaded, whUe they are excellent for covering waste 
places with color imtil early Smnmer. 

Sow the seeds, one-eighth of an inch deep, where they are 



to remain, as soon as the Fall rains have moistened the soil; 
should the seeds germinate very thickly, thin out to six inches 
apart. Unless birds or insects pick up the seeds they will re- 
seed the ground and come up again the following season. 


Hardy annuals which may be had in bloom every month of 
the year by making three sowings, one in January, the next in 
May and the third in August or early in September. A spot in 
the open groimd will suit them, and, when the young plants are 
a few inches high, they should be planted where they are to 
flower, or the seeds may be sown, about one-eighth of an inch 
deep, where they are to bloom, and thinned to one foot apart. 
At the time of thinning, give the surface of the ground a mulch 
of half an inch of well-rotted manure; this will encourage their 
growth and produce larger and finer flowers. 


The Campanulas are among our most showy perennial or 
biennial plants; all of them are elegant when in bloom and should 

be seen more commonly than 
they are. The stately Cam- 
panula pyramidalis, which often 
grows from eight to ten feet 
high, forms grand pyramids of 
blue or white; Campanula Me- 
diimi (Canterbury bells) is among 
the best of our border plants, and 
the dwarf-spreading Campanula 
carpaticaand its varieties are also 
very desirable border plants. 
They delight in a deep rich loam 
well drained; a mulching of old 
manure helps to keep the soil 


Campanula carpatica. 


cool during the Summer months and to conserve the moisture. 
The tall-growing kinds should have their flower-stalks supported 
by neat stakes painted green so as to show as little as possible, 

All of the species are easily raised from seeds sown a quarter 
of an inch deep in early Spring, out of doors or in a frame, and 
again in the Fall, giving a succession of bloom throughout the 

Canna (Indian Shot) 

A large genus of hardy herbaceous perennials, extensively 
employed in beds and flower-borders, their handsome banana- 
like leaves and many-colored flowers in 
stately spikes giving fine tropical effects 
in Summer gardening. Few plants are 
more easily grown, but to do well, they 
require a rich deep soil and plenty of 
water at the root. Before planting, the 
soil should be trenched two spades deep 
and freely mixed with half-rotted 
horse-manure. The plants should be 
set out about two feet apart; if in 
beds, the taller varieties should be 
planted in the middle and the dwarf 
kinds on the outside. A partially-shel- 
tered simny spot should be selected, as 
harsh winds rip the fohage and damage the flowers. 

Propagation is easily effected by dividing the roots; each 
rootstock with bud and roots attached will make an independent 
plant. Divide the roots and plant new beds as soon as growth 
commences in Spring, generally late in March or early in April. 
They may also be propagated from seeds sown in the early 
Spring and covered to the depth of half an inch. 

Canna indica. 

1 235] 



A genus of crested or pyramidal flowering plants much used 
in bedding or for planting in groups or singly in flower borders. 
The crested forms are dwarf, and form cockscomb-like heads, 
sometimes nine inches long, and, in fine specimens, as much as 
four inches broad. Those of bushy or pyramidal form are grace- 
ful and open in habit, and grow, in fine specimens, from four to 
six feet high. The Celosias dehght in a warm sunny situation 
and a deep rich soil not too heavy. 

They are propagated by seeds sown in March, in a gentle 
heat, and covered to the depth of an eighth of an inch. When 
they are two inches high, pot them singly in three-inch pots and 
return them to a house or hotbed until they form fresh rootc in 
the new soil, when they should be moved to a cold frame and 
gradually hardened off by being given a free circulation of air. 
Plant them, about the beginning of May, where they are to bloom. 

Centaurea (Corn-flower) 

This well-known genus is easily grown in any garden soil by 
simply sowing the seeds, one-eighth of an inch deep, in the 
open ground, in March, where wanted to bloom, and thinning 
the plants to six inches apart; after thinning, mulch the ground 
about the plants with half an inch of old manure and give a good 

Centaurea ragusina, the wooUy-leaved species, is better 
treated by sowing the seeds in a gentle heat, in February, and, 
when large enough to be handled, pricking them off three inches 
apart in boxes. Harden them off gradually and plant them in the 
open ground early in May. This species also may be propagated 
by cuttings in September or October. 



Cheiranthus (Wallflower) 

Biennial or perennial herbs. These much admired Spring 
flowers will thrive almost anywhere and with little attention, 
by simply sowing the seeds, one-eighth of an inch deep, where 
they are to bloom, in October or November, and thinning the 
plants when two or three inches high, to six inches apart, but, 
where fine spikes of either single or double varieties are desired, 
the seeds should be sown in August in a cold frame, and, when 
large enough to be handled, the seedlings should be planted, three 
inches apart, in boxes filled with light soil, and transplanted to 
their blooming quarters early in November. This treatment 
will bring them into flower early in April. 


This hardy and important Fall-blooming plant is a favorite 
with all plant lovers, and, to grow to perfection, requires con- 
siderable care and skill, but good results may easily be had by 
ordinary garden treatment if the soil is deep and well-enriched 
by a generous allowance of rotted manure. 

It is propagated by cuttings, by suckers or by dividing the 
roots in March or April. Cuttings should be inserted in a gentle 
heat, or in a cold frame kept close and shaded for a few days; 
as sck)n as they are rooted, they should be potted in three-inch 
pots and returned to the frame, being shaded until they make 
fresh roots, when they should be given plenty of air and kept 
dose to the glass, care being taken that they never once suffer from 
want of water. Plant them where they are to bloom, early in 
May or as soon as they have made six inches of growth. 

The young shoots should have their points pinched off to 
encourage the stems to branch ; this operation should be re- 
peated once a month imtil August ist. Plant them about two 
feet apart; after planting, mulch the entire surface of the beds 
or borders with half-rotted horse-manure and give the ground 



a thorough soaking with water. Chrysanthemums require 

enormous quantities of water, care being taken, however, not to 

sour the soil by giving too much. In the hot dry districts of the 

State they should be planted, if possible, on a northern exposure 
or partially shaded during the Summer months. 

The Chrysanthemum is divided into many sections including 
the incurved (whose strap-shaped florets curve inward), the re- 
curved (whose florets curve outward from the center), the anem- 
one (or grilled form), the Pompones (or small-flowered) and 
the fringed Japanese or ragged section. The Pompones and the 
recurved are considered the most satisfactory for outdoor bedding 
as they are more free-flowering and not so easily damaged by 
Fall winds or wet weather. When the young plants are about 
twelve inches high, a neat stake should be placed at each stem, 
and the stems tied to the stakes, as they need the support. 


The Cineraria is one of our gayest early-Spring flowers, and, 
as it is so easily grown, should be more commonly seen than it is. 

It thrives in any soil, flowering most 

freely in any district which is free 

from frost, and, if planted imder the 

shade of trees where there is a little 

protection, it grows freely and blooms 

^L \ T' constantly from January to July. 

1^:^^^^ jt/ The Cineraria prefers a light sandy 

^j|k ^^^^t SOU well enriched with old manure. 

^1^ /" Propagation is effected by seeds, 

sown in June, in a cold frame or in a 
shaded spot out of doors. As the 
seeds are very small, the surface soil, 
on which the seeds are to be sown, 
should be sifted leaf-mold, smoothed 


Cineraria hybrida. 


over and pressed firm. Sow the seeds thinly and regularly over the 
surface and cover them lightly with finely sifted soil composed of 
leaf-mold and sand well-mixed together, afterwards watering with 
a fine-rosed watering-pot. The seeds should be shaded until they 
germinate, and,- when the seedlings are large enough to be handled, 
they should be transplanted to three inches apart, and placed 
where they are to bloom, early in October. An ideal spot for 
flowering the Cinerarias is under an evergreen tree whose lower 
branches spread over the surface about four feet above the ground. 


This showy annual or perennial herbaceous plant is one of 
our favorite border ornaments, flowering after most of our Sum- 
mer annuals are past blooming and thriving in any good garden 

Propagate by sowing the seeds, one-eighth of an inch deep, 
either in a frame or in a sheltered place out of doors or where 
they are to bloom. They germinate freely and should be planted 
or thinned to one foot apart; mulch the groimd with weU-rotted 
manure and give them plenty of water at the root. The peren- 
nials are propagated by dividing the roots in early Spring, plant- 
ing them two feet apart and treating them as recommended for 

the annuals. 


This well-known hardy annual is another of our Fall-bloom- 
ing favorites, being much used for cut flowers in decorating 
rooms as it lasts well in water. It thrives in any good garden 
soil, well enriched with manure. 

Propagate by seeds sown in March in a cold frame; cover the 
seeds very lightly with finely sifted sandy leaf-mold. Trans- 
plant them, when two inches high, into boxes, placing them four 
inches apart; plant them in the open early in May, two feet 
apart; mulch the ground well with old manure and water freely 
during the Summer months. 

[ 239 ] 


The Dahlia is a popular genus of only a few species, all natives 
of Mexico. Dahlia variabilis is probably the species from which 
most of the show Dahlias have origi- 
nated, while Dahlia Juarezii is the 
original of the Cactus section, the 
varieties of which have become so 
popular. As Dahlia imperialis is such 
a late bloomer, no varieties of this, of 
any great merit, have as yet been in- 

Dahlias are among the best of our 
Summer and Autumn-flowering 
plants, and are now considered Indis- 
pensable in garden decoration, 
whether the garden is large or small. 
Dahlia imperiaii*. With care and attention they may 

be had in flower from May until late in November. The first 
planting should be done early in March, and a second planting 
(which should be of Spring-struck cuttings) ought to be made 
about June ist. The first planted will bloom from May until late 
in the Fall, and the second will begin flowering in August, con- 
tinuing in flower, if the old flowers are picked off and the small 
weak shoots thinned out, until November. 

To grow the Dahlia well requires good soil not too stiff, well- 
enriched with half-rotted horse- or cow-manure. The ground on 
which the Dahlia is to be grown should be trenched two spades 
deep, the manure being freely mixed with the soil. Before plant- 
ing, the ground should be staked off, and the varieties grouped 
according to their color and height, their respective positions 
being fixed, so that, when they come in bloom, the whole will be 
a pleasing blending of color and form. Before planting also, the 
soil, immediately about where the young plants are to be set, 


should be freely stirred to the depth of a foot; after planting, 
give the soil a good soaking of water and tie the young stems to 
temporary stakes. As the Dahlia is a gross feeder, water must 
be supplied in abundance about three times a week, and, after 
flowering commences, manure-water should be given once every 
week; this will give greater depth of color and substance to the 
flowers and more vigor to the plants, enabling them to make fresh 
growth and a longer continuance of bloom. 

Propagation is effected by seeds, cuttings or division of the 
roots; by seeds sown and covered to the depth of a quarter of an 
inch, in February; by cuttings, in March, taken from the young 
shoots which start from the neck of the tubers; by division in 
early Spring before growth commences. Young plants raised 
from cuttings generally give better results. To get good cuttings, 
the tubers should be placed in a frame with a gentle bottom 
heat. Place the tubers about a foot apart over the bed of the 
frame and shake about one inch of soil, composed of half leaf- 
mold and half sand, over the tubers, care being taken that the 
necks of the tubers are not covered; give a light sprinkling of 
water and keep the sash of the frame closed so as to have a warm 
moist atmosphere at all times, while a light sprinkling of water 
should be given once a day. This will be sufficient to induce the 
production of shoots, and each of these may be removed as soon 
as it has two joints. Place the cuttings (in a warm frame or hot- 
house) in beds, boxes or pots in leaf-soil and sand, where, in about 
a week or ten days, roots will be formed ; as soon as rooted they 
should be potted singly in three-inch pots and placed in the same 
temperature where they should remain for two weeks or until they 
take with the new soil; they should then be removed to a cold 
frame, and gradually exposed to the open air. They should be 
given more pot-room as required, or planted out where they are 
to flower. After the plants are finished blooming in the Fall, 
the tubers should be taken up and placed in a cool airy shed until 
they are wanted in Spring. Where there are no facilities for 



propagating by cuttings, the tubers may be left in the ground 
until about March first, when they should be taken up and 
separated singly, allowing one shoot to each tuber, and planted 
where they are to flower. 

Delphinium (Larkspur) 

A race of hardy ornamental perennials, biennials or annuals 
with tall branching flower-stems and beautiful palmated leaves. 
They are very easily grown, but, if fine flowers are wanted, they 
must be given special attention, while the soil should be deep 
and enriched with old manure well incorporated with the soil. 
They should be planted about three feet apart, and, as soon as 
the shoots attain a height of one foot, a stake must be placed at 
each shoot for its support, as they are easily broken by the winds. 
After flowering, the stalks shoidd be cut down, when the yoimg 
growth will sprout from the base to form flowering shoots for the 
following year. 

Propagate by division of the roots, or by seeds which may 
be sown at any time, when the ground is in order, from October to 
February, the seeds being covered to the depth of a quarter of an 
inch. Division of the roots is much the simplest plan for in- 
creasing them, and early Spring the best season for dividing the 
roots. The annual species (such as the common Larkspur) are 
propagated only by seeds sown in the open where wanted to 
bloom; when the seedlings are three or four inches high, thin 
them to one foot apart and midch with old manure. 

DiANTHUS Caryophyllus (Camotion) 

There are no hardy flowers more deserving general cultivation 
than Carnations, as they present charming diversity of coloring 
with delicious, spicy perfume. They thrive best in a fresh loamy 
soil not too heavy, a yellow or brown loam being best suited for 
growing them. 



Propagation is efifected by seeds, by cuttings or by layers; by 
seeds, in early Spring, sown in pots or pans in light rich soil 
composed of half sand and half leaf-mold, the seeds being cov- 
ered lightly with the soil. Place in a mild bottom heat, and, 
when the seedlings are about one inch in height, prick them oflf 
about two inches apart in boxes; then return them to the same 
temperature (a mild hotbed) and shade them during hot sunshine 
for a few days or imtil the young seedlings have taken root in the 
new soil; afterwards remove them to a cold frame and gradually 
expose them to the open air. Plant them, about the middle of 
April, where they are to flower, in a sunny situation protected 
from cold winds, in soil which is fresh, not having been used for 
at least a year before in growing flowers of any sort. 

In propagating by cuttings, use only wood which is short- 
jointed and carries strong healthy leaves. Dibble them about 
one inch apart in boxes filled with sandy leaf-mold, and place 
them, in March, in cold frames or in a shaded, sheltered spot 
out of doors. They may also be put in (in a similar situation) 
in September with equally good results. As soon as they are 
rooted, transplant them three inches apart either into boxes or 
into a sheltered border until ready for their permanent quarters. 

Where only a few growths of any desirable variety can be 
had, propagation by layering is perhaps the surest of all methods. 
Layering is effected by simply bending one of the branches or 
shoots into the soil (after, with a sharp knife, having cut a slit 
into the shoot on the imderside, about half through the stem) 
and, with a hooked peg, pegging it into the groimd about one- 
half inch below the surface. Then, to a light stake, tie the point 
of the shoot in an upright position, which will open the cut or 
slit, care being taken not to sever entirely the point of the shoot 
from the main stem. Next cover the cut part with light sandy 
soil and give a good watering. Keep the soil moderately moist, 
and in a few weeks the layers will be rooted when they may be 
severed from the parent stem and planted where they are to bloom.. 



Should the Carnation be attacked by rust or spot, pick off all 
the affected leaves at once and spray the entire plant with Bor- 
deaux Mixture composed of one poimd of powdered copper- 
sulphate in two gallons of water and one pound of fresh slacked 
lime in two gallons of water, these being mixed together and 
enough water being added to make ten gallons. Mix and stir the 
whole thoroughly and apply with a sponge or syringe, seeing that 
the imderside of all the leaves is reached by the spray. About 
May first give the soil aroimd the plants a good mulching with 
very old well-decomposed cow-manure and give water as required. 
As soon as the flower-stalks are six inches high, stake each flower- 
stem with a light stake about one-quarter of an inch in thickness, 
tying the stem loosely to the stake, to keep the flowers from being 
blown about by the winds or from being bent to the ground by 
watering. Pick off all sj)ent flowers as soon as they lose color, 
and give water as required. 


A genus of many species including the Chinese Pink (Dianthus 
Chinensis), Sweet- William (Dianthus barbatus), etc., of easy 
culture and thriving in any good soil. The Sweet-William is 
generally propagated by sowing the seeds, one-eighth of an inch 
deep, in July. When the seedlings are one inch in height, prick 
them off, three inches apart, in boxes, and plant them, in October 
or November, where they are wanted to bloom. The Chinese 
. Pink should be sown in a warm frame or greenhouse in February, 
pricked off three inches apart, in boxes, when one inch high, and 
planted out of doors in April or early in May. 



Digitalis (Foxglove) 

A genus of about twenty species 
of hardy perennial or biennial flower- 
ing plants of stately habit, bearing 
racemes of funnel-shaped flowers. 
They thrive in any soil or situation 
but prefer a shaded spot under the 
limbs of trees or among tall-growing 
shrubs where they give a fine effect 
in early Summer. 

Propagate by seeds sown out of 
doors, in June, and covered very 
lightly. After the first rains in the 
Autumn, plant out the seedlings 
about a foot apart. Digitaiu. 


This old favorite herbaceous 
plant should be more commonly 
seen in our gardens than it is. Its 
Marguerite-like yellow flowers, 
growing on tall stately stems, make 
it an excellent cut flower for filling 
vases and decorating rooms in early 
Spring. It is of easy culture in any 
garden soil. 

Propagate by division of the 
Doronicum. TOOts during December or January. 

EscHSCHOLTZlA (California Poppy) 

This beautiful native wildflower, the glory of our fields and 
hillsides, requires no description. Any garden soil suits it, the 


stronger the soil the deeper the color of the blossoms; in heav>- 
loam they are deep orange in color, while in sand they are of a 
pale lemon shade with smaller flowers and shorter leaves. 

Propagate, after the first Fall rains, by sowing seeds in places 
where they are to flower, and covering the seeds to the depth of 
an eighth of an inch. The young plants, when two inches high, 
should be thinned to six inches apart; give the ground about 
them a hght mulching of old manure. In ordinary seasons they 
require no artificial irrigation. There are several garden varieties 
with different shades of color from white to a reddish orange, 
including some which are pink. 


A genus comprising about fifty species of small shrubs or 
trees, most of them ha\Tng been introduced from South America 
and Mexico. Fuchsias are among 
the most popular and ornamental of 
our garden plants, especially along 
the coast where they receive the bene- 
fit of the cool ocean breeze and attain 
a height of twenty feet. Whether the 
garden be large or small, it should 
have a few representative Fuchsia 
plants. They are excellent for cover- 
ing fences or walls, where their 
branches with their panicles of rich 
flowers should be allowed to grow and 
i droop naturally. For forming bush 

P^iwia- or pyramid-shaped specimens. 

Fuchsias are admirably adapted; if for pyramid, they should be 
trained with a single stem, the branches being pinched when 
they grow out of shape and the main stem being allowed to take 
the lead, it being pinched only when it fails to branch. When 
a bush-shape is wanted, pinch the main shoot and allow the 

Specbnen of Fuchsia. 


branches to grow freely, pinching those only which are incUned 
to grow ahead of the others and thus threaten to get the plant out 
of shape. Before growth commences in Spring, the plants should 
be pnmed back to the shape desired, and at least half of the 
previous year's growth cut oflf. 

Propagate in September by cuttings placed in a cold frame 
and kept close and shaded for about two weeks when a little 
more air may be admitted, or they may be struck (in the open 
air) in a shaded place away from draughts of air, and kept moist. 
Soil for the cuttings should be composed of half sand and half 
leaf-mold; as soon as the cuttings are well rooted, they should be 
potted singly in three-inch pots and replaced in the frame imtil 
they form fresh roots. Protect the plant from frost during the 
first Winter by a covering of light cloth or branches of Cypress 
or other evergreen. There are numerous varieties of the Fuchsia, 
some of them of large size, very free-flowering and of all shades 
of red, purple and white. 


This showy perennial is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, 
and is perfectly hardy, thriving in any garden soil and being an 
excellent plant for forming borders to walks, or for planting in 

Propagate by cuttings placed in a cold frame, in September 
or October, in the open groimd in a well-sheltered place, in soil 
composed of half sand and half light loam well-mixed together; 
after they are rooted, plant them in a prepared bed two inches 
apart imtil wanted for planting where they are to flower. 

Gerberia jAMiESONn {Transvaal Daisy) 

A remarkably handsome perennial herbaceous plant which 
has recently been introduced from South Africa. It grows in 



heavy cliunps, has leaves about one foot in length, deeply cut, 
and blooms almost continuously throughout the year, bearing 
great masses of Marguerite-like flowers which are of a bright 
terra cotta color and have stems about one and a half feet in 
length. The Transvaal Daisy should be in every garden. 

Propagate by seeds sown during Spring, in soil composed of 
half leaf-mold, well decomposed, and half silver-sand, covering 
the seeds to the depth of an eighth of an inch. As soon as the 
seedlings have formed four leaves, they should be potted singly 
in two-inch pots and afterwards given larger pots as required. 
Propagation of the Transvaal Daisy may also be effected by divi- 
sion of the roots during March or April. 


A genus comprising about thirty species of hardy perennial 
plants, very useful for forming groups in the flower-border, and 
for cutting for indoor decoration. They bear yellow, red or 
white flowers, some varieties being single- flowered and others 


They are of easy culture and thrive in any soil. Propagate 
by division of the roots in Winter or early Spring or by seeds 
sown, one-quarter of an inch deep, in October, where they are to 
bloom, thinning out the seedlings to one foot apart when they are 
about two inches high. 


This beautiful hardy native annual makes a most attractive 
mass of color when grown in a suitable place, as for example, a 
sunny spot in the open groimd away from the garden proper, 
among the shrubs or in any semi-waste spot where a Spring 
effect is desired. It is of easy culture; in November spade the 
ground and, after raking it over, sow the seeds one-eighth of an 



inch deep. Should the seeds germinate too thickly, thin the 
young plants, when two inches high, to three or four inches 
apart and they will require no further attention. 


This genus contains about ninety species which are among 
our most popular garden flowers, their stately habit and gorgeous 
spikes of handsome flowers making them indispensable in all 
gardens. While some are pure white, they contain a great va- 
riety of color, ranging through all shades of pink and red to dark 
crimson, and also including yellows and purples. Some varieties 
are beautifully flaked and striped. The Gladioli should have a 
deep rich soil and a sunny situation and should be' generously sup- 
plied with water during the growing season, while a heavy 
mulching of old cow-manure about the roots assists them to per- 
fect their flowers. Each flower-stalk should be tied to a light 
wooden stake to keep it from being moved or blown about by 
winds. As soon as the leaves begin to turn yellow in the Fall, 
the corms should be taken up with their tips intact, and laid in 
a cool dry shed to become ripened, when the tops may be cut off 
close to the bulb, and the corms placed in boxes, covered with 
dry soil and kept dry and cool until planting time. Plant the first 
lot of bulbs in February and the next lot in May; plant them 
about three inches deep, and one foot apart. 

Propagate by seeds sown in early Spring and covered to the 
depth of a quarter of an inch, or by the small corms or bulbs 
which form aroimd the old corms or on the ends of the roots. 
These smaU corms should be planted in Spring in a nursery bed 
and grown on for a year before being planted in the flower-border. 


This genus includes the common Sunflower and about eighty 
other species. The tall-growing annual species thrive in any good 



soil and show best when planted among tall shrubs or trees where 
they have a good background of foliage. The perennial species, 
not being such tall growers, are very suitable for planting in 
climips in the herbaceous border, where their dense masses of 
bright yellow are very effective. 

The "multiflorus" varieties are the most popular; some of 
them when well grown are as large and as double as a Dahlia. 

The annual species are propagated by seeds sown, where they 
are to flower, in early Spring. Cover the seeds to the depth of a 
quarter of an inch. Propagate the perennial species by division 
of the roots in early Spring. The annuals, when four inches high, 
should be thinned to eighteen inches apart, and the perennials 
should be planted two feet apart each way. 


A genus comprising over one hundred species (mostly herbs, 
only a few of them being shrubby), the conmion Heliotrope 
(Heliotrope Peruvianum) being the origin of most of the large 
trussed varieties now in use. They are of easy culture, preferring 
a light rich soil with plenty of water and a sunny situation. 

Propagate by cuttings inserted, in September, in sand and 
placed in a cool frame and kept shaded for the first two weeks. 
Where the temperature falls below thirty-three degrees Fahren- 
heit, the young plants should be protected from cold during the 


This pretty saxifrage-like plant is very useful for Spring- 
flowering, its bright pinkish-red flowers continuing in bloom for 
months. It is also good for cutting and for filling small vases. 
It is of easy culture, thriving in any soil. Heuchera sanguinea 
will be foimd one of the best species for general use. 

Propagate by dividing the crowns in early Spring. 



Iberis {Candytuft) 

This old favorite is of easy culture and not particular as to 
soil. Of course, it shows finer flowers and remains longer in 
bloom when given good rich soil than when a poor soil is used. 
The annual sorts are raised from seeds sown either in September 
or October, or in February or March. The seeds should be sown 
where they are to flower, and covered to the depth of an eighth 
of an inch, the seedlings, when two inches high, being thinned out 
to six inches apart each way. The perennial species, in addition 
to being propagated by seeds, may be increased by cuttings placed 
in a cold frame in October or November or by division of the 
roots in February or March. 


This genus includes the well-known Balsam and the free- 
flowering Impatiens Sultani from Zanzibar. 

The Balsam delights in a rich light soil and a warm sheltered 
situation away from cold winds and fog. Being an annual, it is 
raised only from seeds. The seeds should be sown in a hotbed 
or warm greenhouse and covered very lightly with finely-sifted 
sandy leaf-mold, March being a good month for the planting of 
the seeds which germinate in a few days. The seedlings should be 
pricked out, as soon as they are large enough to be handled, and 
planted three inches apart in pans or boxes; as soon as they fill 
the space in the boxes, they should be planted out where they 
are to bloom, or given more root-room so that their growth may 
not receive any check, otherwise their stems will become stimted 
and the flowers small and colorless. After planting them out of 
doors, give them a good watering and mulch them with well- 
decayed manure, giving them copious waterings at least twice 
a week. 

Impatiens Sultani, being a perennial, in addition to being 
easily raised from seeds may be increased by cuttings, taken, in 



March or April, from tops of the young growths, inserted in 
sandy leaf-mold and placed in a hotbed or warm greenhouse 
where they will root in about ten days and be ready for potting. 
Impatiens Sultani makes an elegant pot plant, useful for decorat- 
ing the greenhouse or for placing on a warm veranda. 


This very useful ornamental-leaved bedding plant is much 
used in outlining formal figures in carpet-bedding and ribbon 
borders and is considered an indispensable plant for Siunmer- 
planting. It is easily propagated by cuttings inserted imder glass, 
in September or October, or by cuttings in the Spring, inserted in 
sand in a hotbed or warm propagating pit. As soon as they are 
rooted, plant the yoimg plants, three inches apart in light rich 
soil, in pots or boxes, returning them to a warm frame or green- 
house imtil they take root in the soil, when they may be removed 
to a cold frame and gradually hardened by exposure to the open 
air. They should be planted out in their permanent quarters 
late in April or early in May. 


This genus comprises about two hundred species, a few 
shrubby, many herbaceous and a large number annuals. The 
dwarf annuals are very useful for bordering flower-beds and for 
forming a ground- work for tall-growing specimens, for instance, 
a bed of the tall-growing scarlet-flowered Lobelia cardinalis 
with a carpet or groimd-work of the dwarf blue Lobelia speciosa, 
making a charming combination. 

They are all easily grown and thrive in any garden soil. The 
cardinalis type should be planted about one foot apart and the 
speciosa six inches apart. 

The annual species are raised from seeds sown under glass; 
the seeds should be sown, in February, in soil composed of half 



leaf-mold and half light loam with enough sand to keep the 
compost open, the soil barely covering the seeds. The seeds 
being very fine, the soil for covering them should be sifted through 
a fine sieve. Place the pots or boxes where they have a little 
bottom heat; when the yoimg seedlings are large enough to be 
handled, prick them out three inches apart in boxes and return 
them to a place with the same temperature for two weeks, when 
they may be placed in a cold frame and gradually hardened oflF, 
then placed out of doors until April or May, when they should 
be planted where they are to flower. 

The Lobelia cardinalis type may also be raised from seeds, 
but they are generally increased by dividing the roots. This 
should be done in February or March. 


This hardy genus contains about eighty species, most of them 
American and many being natives of the Pacific Coast. The 
perennial species form handsome specimens in the shrubbery 
borders, and the annual species are beautiful in the wild garden or 
for planting in the flower-borders. Lupins delight in a light 
sandy soil, thriving even in the most barren sands. 

Their propagation consists simply of sowing the seeds where 
they are to flower and raking the ground on which the seeds have 
been sown. The best season for planting the seeds is in October 
or immediately after the first rains. 

The shrubby blue-flowered Lupinus Chamissonis and the yel- 
low Lupinus arboreus form handsome bushes from three to six 
feet tall and as much through the branches. They are very free- 
flowering; the annual species, such as Lupinus bicolor, form 
beautiful masses or beds. The herbaceous species are best when 
grown in partial shade, in the uncultivated copse, in hedge-rows 
or along the banks of streams. They require no artificial irrigation. 




Thisold-fashioned favorite has not been grown much of late, 
but as there is now a tendency to return to the old style of her- 
baceous borders, no doubt the beautiful Lychnis, with its many 
varieties of charming bright colors, will again be seen in our 
gardens. The Lychnis thrives in any soil, but prefers a hght 
sandy soil and a sunny situation. 

In October or November prepare the soil by digging it over 
and raking it smooth. Then sow the seeds where they are desired 
to bloom, and cover them lightly. Should the young plants come 
up too thickly, thin them, if the tall-growing species, to one foot 
apart, if the dwarf-growing species, to six inches apart. 

Matthiola (Stock) 

These popular herbs or sub-shrubs are probably the most com- 
monly grown of any flowering plants. Their colors range from 
white, through all shades of pink 
and red, into purple and violet, an- 
other point in their favor being 
their dehghtful fragrance. There 
are several types or classes, some 
flowering in early Spring and some 
in Summer, while others bloom in 
Autumn, this depending a good deal 
on the time of sowing the seeds. 
Stocks require a deep rich soil and 
a sheltered situation with plenty 
of moisture at the roots. Plant 
them six inches apart, choosing a 
s*^x^ cloudy day for the operation ; after 

planting, give the soil a good soaking of water and afterwards 
mulch the surface of the soil with old manure; water at least 
twice a week. 



Propagate by sowing seeds of ten-week Stock early in March, 
in a hotbed, the intermediate varieties in April, and the Bromp- 
tons late in July. Cover the seeds to the depth of one-eighth of 
an inch. As soon as the young plants are large enough to be 
handled, prick them out (in pots or boxes) three indfes apart in 
light rich soil composed of one-third leaf-mold, one-third light 
loam, one-sixth old well-decomposed horse-manure and one-sixth 
soft sand, weU mixed together; return them into the same tem- 
perature for about ten days, after which they should be trans- 
ferred into a cold frame and gradually exposed to the air, care 
being taken that the yoimg plants do not receive any check in 
their growth either by sudden exposure to cold or by being taken 
from imder glass and planted in the open without first being 
placed out of doors for at least a week until they get over the 
change from shelter to exposure. Another danger to be guarded 
against is leaving young plants in the boxes after they have 
exhausted the soil, in which case the stems become hard and 
barkbound, thus forcing them to send up their flower-stalks 
which, on account of their stunted condition, are puny and weak. 
In short, the young plants should be kept in a vigorous growing 
condition from the time they germinate until planted where they 
are to flower. 


This showy and ornamental genus comprises many fine- 
flowering annuals and a few shrubby species ; one of the shrubby 
species (Mimulus glutinosus) may be found blooming on our 
hillsides nearly every month of the year. Mimulus cardinalis, 
with its bright scarlet flowers, is a lovely perennial, thriving best 
by the side of a running stream, and another of our natives is 
Mimulus luteus which flourishes by the banks of our ponds and 
lakes. The many and vari-colored varieties of Mimulus luteus 
are very effective garden flowers. Mimulus moschatus (the com- 
mon Musk) is another species of this genus and is a well-known 



and favorite plant both for growing in pots and for planting out- 
side in clumps, or for growing a ground-work for tall-stemmed 
flowers such as Lobelia cardinalis. 

Propagate by seeds sown (in early Spring) in the open air» 
where they are to flower, or by cuttings inserted (in early Spring) 
in a shady spot protected from wind and strong sunshine. The 
seeds, being very small, should be covered with soil very lightly. 
Mimulus moschatus is best propagated by dividing the roots in 
early Spring or before growth commences. 


The Musas are among the very best of the large-leaved dec- 
orative plants, Musa Ensete having the largest leaves. It is much 
used in subtropical gardening, sometimes producing leaves over 
fifteen feet in length with a breadth of three feet, these, with their 
broad midrib of reddish-brown color, making it one of the hand- 
somest plants in a well-kept garden. The Musas delight in a 
warm sunny well-sheltered situation, a rich well-manured deep 
soil and plenty of water during the growing season. 

Propagate Musa Ensete by seeds, sown to the depth of half 
an inch, in a hotbed, in February or March, and potted singly 
in four-inch pots as soon as the seedlings are six inches high; give 
them more pot-room as required, planting them, in early May, 
where they are to remain. Musa Cavendishii, Musa coccinea and 
most of the other species are easily increased by dividing the roots 
or by taking the young suckers which form at the base of the 
stem, potting them, at any time during Winter or Spring, in light 
rich soil and placing them in bottom-heat until rooted. 

Myosotis {Forget-me-not) 

A genus of elegant annual flowering plants excellent for early 
Spring bedding, or, preferably, for covering the groimd among 
upright growing shrubs, aU being of the easiest culture and thriv- 
ing in any soil. 



Propagate by sowing the seeds, where they are to flower, early 
in October, or after the first rains, covering them very lightly. 
When the young plants are two or three inches high, thin them to 
six inches apart and the result will be a pleasing ground-work of 
pretty pale-blue, giving a fine finish to the flower-bed or shrub- 
bery group. 


This early-flowering favorite is one of the best of our native 
annuals for filling flower-beds, clumping in the flower-borders, 
carpeting shrubbery-groups or covering dry banks to give natural 
effects. Its culture is of the simplest, all that is necessary being to 
sow the seeds thinly to tiie depth of an eighth of an inch, where 
they are to bloom, immediately after the first Fall rains; any 
soil will suit, down to the poorest sand or even a rocky ledge if 
the rock is loose enough to allow the roots to penetrate. 

Nemophila insignis and Nemophila aurita will be found 
the most useful of the species for general planting. 


Evening Primroses are among our favorite natives and are 
most desirable plants for the decoration of our gardens and shrub- 
beries; planted among shrubs, where their flower-stalks and 
bright-colored (pink, white or yellow) flowers show against the 
background of shrubby leaves, the effect is very pleasing, their 
flowers being among the most beautiful and attractive of our 
native perennial herbs. 

They thrive well in any soil not too shallow, and require little 
or no artificial irrigation. CEnothera biennis, CEnothera albi- 
caulis, CEnothera bistorta, CEnothera ovata and CEnothera cheir- 
anthifolia are all natives of this Coast and especially effective. 

Propagate by seeds sown, to the depth of an eighth of an inch, 
where they are to bloom, in October or! immediately after the first 



rains have well soaked the soil, or by division of the root-stocks 
in Winter or early Spring. The seeds may be sown in a seed-bed 
and the seedlings transplanted when three or four inches high. 

The tall-growing sorts should be planted one foot apart and 
the dwarf species six inches apart. 


A large genus comprising over two hundred species scattered 
widely over the Temperate Zone but mainly in South America, 
Mexico and South Africa. They are mostly used as border-plants 
or for covering the surface of the ground under or among shrubs. 

They prefer a sandy soil and a sunny situation. AU of the 
species are of easy culture and are propagated by division of the 
roots jai early Spring. Plant them about a foot apart. They root 
quickly and spread rapidly; they should be taken up and re- 
planted every second year. 

P^ONiA {Pceony) 

A well-known genus of hardy plants, natives of America, 
Asia and Japan, which are excellent plants for the decoration 
of the herbaceous border or for groups in the shrubbery. The 
species Paeonia officinalis have deciduous stems and perennial 
roots. Their flowers, both single and double, which range in 
color from purple through red and pink to pure white, are very 
effective in grouping and are also great favorites for cutting for 
room decoration. 

Paeonia Moutan, the Japanese species, are highly decorative, 
and, having a range of color quite as extensive as the herbaceous 
species, are also most desirable plants for planting in groups in 
the shrubbery or garden-border. Their flowers are of immense 
size, single and double, and most gorgeous coloring. 

Plant them in January in heavy rich loam which is at least 
two feet in depth, care being taken not to cover the crown of 



the plant too deeply, not over one inch of soil covering the 
crown. During the season of growth, they should be watered 
generously, and the surface of the soil should be weU mulched 
with old manure. The climips of the herbaceous species should 
not be moved or disturbed more often than once in five or six 
years, as it is found that disturbing their roots has a weakening 
eflfect on the plants. Plant them about three feet apart each 
way. If left alone and in good soil they will soon form large 
clmnps. Propagate the herbaceous species, in Winter or early 
Spring, by division of the roots, and the tree Moutan or Japanese 
species by grafting on to the roots of the herbaceous kinds in 

Papaver {Poppy) 

A hardy easily-grown genus of annual and perennial flower- 
ing plants, natives of the temperate or subtropical regions of 
Asia, North Africa and Europe. They grow well in any com- 
mon garden soil and are excellent for cutting, for decoration in- 
doors or for giving gay, many-colored effects in beds or flower- 
borders; they are also good for sowing or planting in woods or 

Sow seeds of Papaver Danebrog, Papaver somniferum, or the 
Shirley species, in February, where intended to bloom; sow the 
seeds one-quarter of an inch deep. Thin the young plants to one 
foot apart, top-dressing the ground about the young seedlings 
with old manure to the depth of one-half or one inch; water 
when required. 

The perennial species, such as Papaver bracteatum, Papaver 
orientale, etc., are propagated by division of the roots in early 
Spring or by seeds sown, in July, in a cold frame, pricked out 
in boxes as soon as large enough to be handled and planted in 
their permanent quarters in November. 




Without doubt the Geranium is the most universally grown 
plant to be found in our gardens, and deservedly so, its hardiness, 
its handsome evergreen foliage, with its ever-blooming many-col- 
ored flowers, making it a general favorite. 

The Pelargonium is divided into several sections, including 
the common bedding or zonale, the ivy-leaved creeping section 
and the show or Lady Washingtons, these again being subdivided 
into innumerable varieties. All are of very easy culture and 
thrive well in any soil and in almost any aspect. 

Propagate by cuttings inserted in sandy soil in boxes or beds 
in the open air, in September. When they are rooted, rebox them 
in soil composed of equal parts loam, leaf-mold and old manure, 
with a little sand to keep the mixture open and free. 

In frostless sections, the young plants may remain out of doors 
all Winter; in other sections they should be placed under glass 
until all danger from frost has passed, and planted, where they 
are to bloom, in April or early May. 


This hardy and popular pereimial 
is among the most beautiful of our 
herbaceous plants, having erect, flow- 
ering branches (two or three feet tall) 
and funnel-shaped flowers, the prin- 
cipal colors being blue, pink, scarlet 
and white with all the intervening 
shades. The Pentstemon grows well 
in any fairly good soil. The flower- 
stalks of the taller-growing varieties 
should be supported by light stakes to 
keep them from being blown about 
by winds or borne down by heavj- 
IPentetemoii. watering. 



Propagation is effected by seeds and cuttings; the seeds 
should be sown, to the depth of an eighth of an inch, in Febru- 
ary or early in March, in a cool frame. When large enough to 
be handled the seedlings should be pricked off, three inches apart, 
into pots or boxes, and planted out, when about four inches high, 
where they are to bloom. They should be exposed to full air 
and sunshine at least one week before being planted out of 
doors. Propagation by cuttings is made, in September, by 
inserting the cuttings either in a cold frame, where they may be 
shaded for the first two weeks, or in a shady spot away from 
cold draughts of wind, out of doors, in soil composed of half 
sand and half leaf-mold. 


A genus of hardy, free-flowering plants belonging to the So- 
lanum family, natives of Brazil 
and the Argentioe Republic. They 
are very showy and effective for 
planting in beds or masses, also for 
planting in waste ground or where 
water is not very plentiful. They 
thrive m any soil and require very 
little attention in the way of 
watering if the soil about the 
plants is kept loose and clear of 
weeds. If extra large flowers are 
wanted, give them good rich soil 
and a reasonable amount of water. 

Petimias are raised principally Petunia, 

from seeds sown in February, one-sixteenth of an inch deep, in 
a cold frame, pricked off (into boxes) three inches apart, and, as 
soon as they are of sufficient size, hardened by being placed in the 
open air for a week or ten days and then planted where they are 
to flower. 



Special varieties, such as the double and finely-fringed single, 
are propagated by cuttings; these should be taken oflF in Septem- 
ber and hiserted in sandy soil, either in boxes or in the bed of the 
trame, and kept shaded during the middle of the day imtil young 
roots btgin to form, when they shoidd be given more air and 
light and gradually exposed to full sunshine. Plant them out 
of doors, where they are to bloom, at any season where there is 
no frost, and in other sections as soon as cold weather is past in 
the Spring. 


This brilliant native of the Eastern States is becoming a 
general favorite in our gardens, its handsome panicles of charm- 
ingly beautiful flowers being excellent, when cut, for the decora- 
tion of our rooms and halls. It also gives color and brightness 
to our flower-borders, and, where a good collection of the early 
or Simmier-flowering perennial varieties together with the tall- 
growing Autumn late-flowering varieties are cultivated, a long 
season of continuous bloom may be had by the different kinds 
succeeding each other in flowering. 

The dwarf species, such as Phlox subulata, are very useful for 
covering rock-work and for forming front lines in mixed borders. 

The annual Phlox Drummondii is one of our most beautiful 
Summer-blooming plants. This species and its many varieties 
are suitable for filling flower-beds or for forming a ground-cov- 
ering among taller-stemmed subjects. They (Phlox Drum- 
mondii) are raised from seeds sown m February in a warm hot- 
bed, a little bottom-heat being of great assistance to their free 
germination in pots or boxes in light sandy soil. Seeds should 
be covered to the depth of an eighth of an inch. As soon as the 
seedlings are large enough to be handled, they should be pricked 
off into boxes and grown on in frames until large enough to be 



planted in the open air. Before being planted, they should be 
hardened oflf by being placed in the open air for a week or ten 

The perennial species are propagated by cuttings of the young 
shoots which start from the old stools in Spring. Take off the 
shoots when they make a growth of four inches and place them 
in light sandy soil in a cold frame, shading them for a few days 
during hot sunshine. As soon as they are rooted, take them out 
and plant them in the open border in rows eight inches apart and 
three inches apart in the row. These will make good plants for 
flowering the following season. 

The most popular system of increasing the number of 
plants is by simply dividing the old stools into small pieces in 
early Spring and replanting. In planting the tall-growing species, 
set them out about two feet apart. In Summer a good top-dress- 
ing of old manure will be found very beneficial, besides conserving 
the moisture by preventing evaporation. 

Platystemon (Cream-Cup) 

This charming little annual is one of our earliest Spring 
flowers, flowering some years as early as January. Its lovely 
straw-colored, poppy-like flowers are always welcome wherever 
they are found. 

It is propagated by simply shaking a pinch of seed where 
a patch of the pretty cream-colored flowers is desired, in October, 
or immediately after the groimd has received a good rain in the 
Fall. Should the seedlings come up too thickly, thin them to 
three inches apart. 




Poinsettia pulcherrima, the most showy of the species, is a 
general favorite, during Decem- 
ber and January, for the decora- 
tion of our halls and dinner 

In the northern counties the 
Poinsettia is treated as a green- 
house plant; from Santa Bar- 
bara south it gives grand results 
when grown in the open ground, 
its great scarlet bracts often 
being twelve inches or more 
in width and the plant itself 
frequently growing ten feet high 
PoinMttia. and six feet wide. 


This old favorite, popularly known as Purslane, is sometimes 
used in salads but generally is grown for its gaily-colored flowers 
of purple, yellow, or pink. A near-allied species, the Calandrinia 
caulescens, is a native of California and grows abundantly all 
over the State. 

Its cultivation, like that of the Portulaca, is very simple; 
after cultivating the ground, sow the seeds thinly and rake the 
ground lightly to cover the seeds, any time between the fall of 
the first rains and the first of February. This will insure a bed 
of bright flowers in Spring and early Sunmier. Thin the plants 
to eight inches apart as soon as they are large enough to be 


This pretty little perennial-flowering plant is found very 
useful for planting in the herbaceous border and among shrubs 
where its bright single and also double flowers are very attractive. 


It grows well in any good garden soil but prefers a light sandy soil 
or a situation among rocks. 

It is easily propagated by dividing the roots, in early Spring, 
or by seeds sown, to the depth of an eighth of an inch, in the 
Fall, where they are to bloom, and thinned to six inches apart. 


A genus comprising between seventy and eighty species of 
hardy perennials. The common Primrose, the CowsUp, the 
Chinese Primula obconica, the 
Primula Japonica, besides many 
others, are charming early-Spring 
flowers, often opening their pretty 
yellow, mauve, brown or white 
blossoms as early as January and 
continuing in flower for months. 
Many of the double varieties are 
very floriferous, almost hiding the 
foliage with their beautiful white, 
pink or purple blossoms. The 
Primulas dehght in a shady, moist 
situation facing the East or North, 

in a light rich soil. Plant them one Primula obconica. 

toot apart. 

Propagate by seeds sown in Spring, covered to the depth of 
one-eighth of an inch, and kept growing in pots or boxes or a 
sheltered, shady border until Fall (when they should be planted 
where they are to flower) or, where a stock of old plants is at 
hand, by dividing the roots in the Fall. 

Pyrethrum (Feverfew) 
This hardy herbaceous perennial is best known here by the 
variety named the Golden Feather which is much used in bed- 
ding and as front lines to ribbon borders, etc. 



Pyrethmm roseum, used in the manufacture of insect pow- 
ders, has rose-colored, single. Marguerite-like flowers which axe 
exceedingly handsome. TTiere are also many varieties with 
double flowers and tall erect stems, very usefid for cutting for 
inside room decoration. Their cultivation is simple, any good 
garden soil suiting them. 

Propagation is effected by seeds sown a sixteenth of an inch 
deep, in February, in a cold frame, or in March with a little 
bottom heat; prick the seedlings out in boxes or sheltered bor- 
ders until they are large enough to be placed in their permanent 
quarters. Pyrethrum roseum and other tall-growing sorts may 
also be increased by taking up the roots, dividing them into sec- 
tions, replanting them one foot apart and top-dressing the sur- 
face of the soil with old manure. 

Reseda {Mignonette) 

This universal, favorite, sweet-scented annual is one which 
ought to be seen in every home garden. It will grow in any good 
garden soil, but, if fine flower-stalks are expected, the soil can 
scarcely be made too rich. 

Propagate by seeds sown where they are to flower and cov- 
ered to the depth of a quarter of an inch. February is a good 
season for the sowing of the first crop, and another sowing should 
be made in July; these two sowings will keep up a continual 
supply of flowers during every month of the year, provided the 
plants are not allowed to seed. In sowing, it is a good plan to 
rake the ground finely and sow the seeds in drills about one foot 
apart, the drills to be drawn the shape of the bed or patch 
desired, whether circular, oval or other form. When the plants 
are three inches high, thin them to one foot apart and mulch well 
with old manure, giving water when required. 

To those who have limited space, this little favorite will be 
found very accommodating, as it does well even in a window-box 
if given an Easterly or Northern exposure, requiring a good, 

[ 268 ] 


rich, light soil and plenty of water, care being taken, however, 
not to get the soil soggy or sour. 

Rosa (Rose) 

This important genus of highly ornamental flowering shrubs 
is widely distributed over the Temperate Zone. It is divided 
into many sections or groups, these again being divided into 
numerous varieties. No one of our ornamental flowering plants 
is more worthy of attention from cultivators or flower-lovers than 
the Rose. It is weU named the Queen of Flowers, and is useful 
and beautiful in the many positions it is called upon to adorn, 
provided it is given fair treatment in the way of soil and cul- 
tivation. Some of the groups will be found suitable for almost 
any situation: — covering trellises or arbors, covering walls or 
verandas, in mixed borders or as bedders. A number of the 
stronger-growing species (such as the Ramblers, the Cherokees and 
the Banksias) make grand effects when allowed to grow wildly 
among the branches of a spreading oak or a tall pine, their 
showers of white, red or yellow blossoms almost covering their 
own leaves, as weU as those of the tree which gives them support. 
The Rose is propagated by seeds, cuttings, layers and budding, 
but by cuttings is without doubt the best system for increasing 
the great majority of the finer varieties. Roses of nearly all 
the varieties do weU on their own roots, and propagation by 
cuttings may be carried on during the Summer and Autimm 
months. The first batch should be put in as soon as the first 
crop of flowers is over, and half-ripe wood is in condition, which 
is generally as soon as the flowers drop from the young growth 
and before the buds on the flowering shoots begin to swell. Cut- 
tings of this wood make excellent material and should be about 
six inches in length, if taken off with a heel so much the better. 
The cuttings should be inserted in a cool, shaded border free 
from draughts, in soil composed of half sand and half leaf- 
mold. When making the cuttings in the Sunmier season, the 



leaves should be carefully preserved. Plant the cuttings in rows 
about twelve inches apart, and three inches apart in the row. 

The tea-scented and most of the Japanese and Chinese spe- 
cies and their varieties root well if the cuttings are taken in 
September and inserted in prepared soil in a border facing the 
North or in boxes eight or ten inches deep; the soil should be 
of a light sandy nature, covered with about one-half inch of 
pure sand and well-watered. After the cutting-bed has been 
prepared and the soil watered, take off the cuttings and insert 
them in the soil at once; then give a good watering to settle the 
soil about the cuttings. 

The Hybrid Perpetuals and other hardy sorts root well if 
the cuttings, at the time of pruning, which is in November or 
December, are put in nursery rows in the open ground; use the 
previous year's wood in about eight-inch lengths, planting the 
cuttings six inches deep and leaving about two buds above 
ground; soil of a light sandy nature should be used in the cutting- 

Propagation by budding is effected by taking a bud of the 
variety to be propagated and budding it on the Manetti or some 
other strong grower, selecting a time when both the stock and the 
bud are in proper condition, that is when the bark lifts or parts 
easily from the wood, which is generally in April or May, care 
being taken that neither the stock nor the bud is bruised during 
the operation. 

Propagation by Seeds is resorted to only when it is desired 
to raise new varieties. Sow the seeds to the depth of a quarter 
of an inch, in January, in the open border in a sheltered spot in 
well-prepared, light sandy loam. The seedlings will appear in 
Spring or Sunmier. Should they come up too thickly, thin them 
out to about one inch apart as soon as they are large enough to 
be handled, and transplant the thinnings to where they can be 
shaded till again established. The following Spring, as early as 
the state of the ground will permit, take up the seedlings and 



plant them in nursery rows, cutting each of them back to one 
or two inches; plant them six inches apart in rows one foot 
apart. When the plants come into bloom, all those with poor 
flowers should be discarded and the most promising preserved 
till their true merits are thoroughly tested. 

Propagation by layering is not much practised. It is best 
performed in May or June. Cover the bend with sandy soil and 
keep moist until rooted. When the layers are well-rooted, sever 
them from the parent plant and plant them in a sheltered border 
until a permanent position is prepared for them 

To grow Roses well, a deep rich soil must be used. The 
Hybrid Perpetuals require a strong, loamy soil, one and one-half 
or two feet in depth, well drained. In places where good soil is 
not found and rose-beds are to be formed, it will be necessary to 
remove the natural soil and replace it with the loamy soil; when 
this is done and the soil is satisfactory, it should be well. enriched 
with old manure and the whole trenched to the depth of two feet ; 
the operation should be carried out in the Fall. Before planting 
the young Rose plants, about February, first dig the ground 
over, breaking up all the big lumps or clods, then plant out the 
young plants about three feet apart, selecting a time when the 
soil is in good order and not wet or sticky. After planting, if 
the soil is inclined to be dry, give a good watering and mulch the 
ground with a top-dressing of two inches of half-rotten manure. 

Climbing Roses of the Rambler and Banksia, as well as the 
Cherokee types, also prefer a strong loam and plenty of manure. 
The tea-scented, the everblooming, and the Chinese types seem 
to do best and give their finest flowers in soil of a lighter nature, 
a light sandy soil well-enriched with old manure suiting them 

During dry weather in Summer, while the Rose is making its 
growth, it should receive a generous supply of water at the roots. 
At no season should the roots of the plants be allowed to become 
dry as this weakens the growth, and the young wood does not 



ripen firmly, while next season's growth starts feebly and the 
flowers are poor and colorless. 

The pruning of the different species varies according to the 
habit of growth and the purpose for which they are used. 

The Pillar Roses (those that are used in covering stumps of 
old trees, trellises, etc.) which are generally strong growers 
(under fair conditions, making an annual growth of from six 
to twenty feet) must be treated differently in the way of prim- 
ing from those which are naturally of a bushy, dwarf habit. The 
Climber is grown for the purpose of covering large areas and to 
give great showers of bloom, whereas the dwarf kinds are grown 
mostly for their fine form or size, individually, or in clusters 
of from three to six in a cluster. In pnming the Climbers, in 
December or January, all that is necessary is to thin the shoots 
of any weak or worn out or dead or surplus branches and shorten 
the previous year's shoots by cutting off the soft or imripened 
tips, on the other hand being careful not to thin too freely thus 
exposing too much of the wall or trellises on which they are 

The Hybrid Perpetuals, the Bourbons and the tea-scented 
sections which are grown in beds or borders and are desired for 
their individual flowers, should be pruned back in December or 
January each year, leaving only from four to eight buds on each 
shoot of the previous year's growth. 

When the bushes are four or five years old, it will become 
necessary to thin out some of the old stems, but only enough to 
keep the middle of the bush from becoming crowded too much; 
this admits light and air to each growth and encourages stronger 
stems and finer flowers. 

Should, as is very often the case, the plants show a tendency 
to make weak, spindly growth, it is a good plan to take them up 
in early Spring and either transplant them into new soil or trench 
the ground over (enriching it with a plentiful supply of old 
manure) and replant them after cutting them well back and 



trimming in the roots, pruning off any which are dead or 

The Rose is subject to several diseases, the worst of which 
is Mildew; this should be attended to at once and not left until 
all the leaves are attacked, but, as soon as the first speck of Mil- 
dew is observed, the whole of the plant should be sprinkled with 
a dusting of flowers of sulphur. The Rose-rust is another disease 
which frequently attacks the leaves; it forms on the underside of 
the leaves in red dots or small masses. As yet no cure has been 
found for this disease, so as soon as a leaf is found with this rust 
upon it, it should be picked off and not merely left on the ground 
but should be burned up to prevent the disease from spreading 
to other plants. 

The Rose is also attacked by several species of Aphides, com- 
monly called green or brown fly. These should be got rid of by 
syringing with strong soap-suds in the evening and washing off 
in the morning with the hose; this operation should be con- 
tinued each evening until the fly is all cleaned off. A solution 
of tobacco water is also effective, and sometimes dusting the 
leaves with tobacco dust will have the desired effect. 

When caterpillars infest the leaves, they generally coil them- 
selves in the folds of the leaves. Press the affected leaves firmly 
between the finger and the thumb, thus killing the caterpillar, or 
the leaves can be picked off and burned. 


This ornamental native of Chile is a general favorite in all 
gardens on account of the odd coloring of its tube-shaped flowers. 
It thrives best in a light rich soil where the plants should be one 
foot apart. 

Propagate by seeds sown in a gentle bottom heat in early 
March; cover the seeds very lightly. Prigk them out three 
inches apart into pots or boxes as soon as the seedlings are large 



enough to be handled, keeping the young plants close and shaded 
for a few days until they take root; gradually harden them oflF 
by exposure to the open air, and plant them, where they are to 
bloom, when they are from four to six inches high. 


This brilliant. Autumn-blooming, bedding plant is indispen- 
sable where bright color effects are desired. The Salvias thrive 
in a Ught sandy soil well-enriched with old manure and are kept 
growing by generous supplies of water at the root. 

Propagate the shrubby varieties by cuttings, in September or 
October, inserted in sandy soil in a cool frame and kept shaded 
during sunshine until rooted. Where the temperature falls to 
the freezing point, the cuttings should be kept imder glass until 
all danger from frost is over, when they may be planted where 
they are to bloom. The. tuberous-rooted species (such as Salvia 
patens) are propagated by cuttings taken from the young shoots 
which start from the crown in early Spring; these should be 
placed in a warm house or frame until rooted ; they may also be 
increased by dividing the roots in Spring. 


A large genus of hardy perennial herbs, very useful for plant- 
ing in rockwork where they form beautiful and interesting effects. 
Saxifraga pahnata, probably the largest-leafed species of the 
genus, is a native of California, growing on the banks of our 
streams and creeks; Saxifraga sarmentosa (Aaron's Beard), an 
old favorite, is much used in hanging baskets or in forming 

They thrive in any soil under ordinary care, and are easily 
propagated by dividing the roots or by seeds sown in the open 
ground in early Spring, the seeds being covered very lightly. 




This hardy perennial herb is of easy cultivation and grows in 
any soil with little care, having the good quality of requiring 
little water. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, where they are to 
flower; cover the seeds to the depth of one-eighth of an inch. 
Thin the young plants to one foot apart when they are large 
enough to be handled. They may also be increased by division 
of the roots in February or March. 

SiLENE {Catch-fly) 

This genus comprises over two himdred species, only a few 
of which are adapted to conditions in California. Among the 
best may be named Silene pendula and Silene compacta; both 
of these give fine effects in early Spring and thrive in any light 
sandy soil. 

Propagate by sowing the seeds, where they are to bloom, in 
September or October. The seeds should be covered to the depth 
of one-sixteenth oif an inch. Thin the seedlings, when two inches 
high, to six or eight inches apart. 

TROPiEOLUM {Nasturtium) 

Highly ornamental climbers or twining plants, intro- 
duced from South America. They are among the most useful of 
our annual-flowering plants, requiring very little attention and 
thriving in any soil. For quickly covering arbors or anything 
which is unsightly, the tall-growing species are not easily sur- 
passed. The dwarf bushy species are excellent for planting as a 
groimdwork among shrubs, or for filling beds in semi-dry situ- 
ations as they continue to bloom quite late in Summer if the 
groxmd is well cultivated and mulched with a top dressing of 
manure, leaf-mold or other loose fertilizing material. 

Sow the seeds, one-quarter of an inch deep, where they are 
wanted, at any season between the first rains and March in the 



frostless belt, and as soon as danger from frost is over in other 
districts. Nasturtiums should not be sown in rich soU as in such 
they grow too much to leaves and stems, flowering more profusely 
if their growth is not too strong. 

Tropffioium tuberosum, Tiopffiolum speciosum and other 
tuberous-rooted species do not seem to take kindly to California, 
although no good reason has yet been given for their failure; 
being natives of Chile and the cooler districts of Peru, they ought 
to do splendidly. They are all handsome climbers and no doubt 
they will yet give good results when the proper conditions are 
foimd for them. 

Verbascum (Mullein) 

A genus comprising over one hundred species of hardy bien- 
nial herbs or subshrubs. Some of them are exceedingly handsome, 
the stately spikes of brightly-colored flowers being very oma- 
niental, especially when grown among shrubs. They thrive in 
agy soil, all that is necessary being, in early Spring, to sow the 
seeds, one-sixteenth of an inch deep, where wanted, and to thin 
the young plants to one foot apart when they are two or three 
inches high. 


A genus embracing eighty 
species of hardy perennial herbs 
or subshrubs, being among the 
best of our bedding plants and 
blooming continually for months 
at a time. Their colors range 
through all shades of purple and 
blue, through reds and pinks to 
the purest white. Their habit 
is low and spreading, making 
excellent ground-work for flow- 
Verbena ering-plants with tall stems. 



They are propagated by seeds sown in a gentle heat, in early 
Spring, and covered to the depth of an eighth of an inch. When 
the young plants are large enough to be handled, they should be 
pricked off, three inches apart, in pots or boxes. Use soil composed 
of one-quarter leaf-mold, one-half good friable loam and one- 
quarter old well-rotted horse- or cow-manure with enough sand 
to keep the whole free and open. Before planting out, place them 
in the open air for a week or ten days to harden them; plant them 
when from four to six inches high. They may also be increased 
by cuttings late in the Fall, and again in Spring. All species of 
Verbena like a good rich soil and a Uberal supply of water. They 
should also be mulched around each plant with half-rotted manure 
to encourage vigorous growth. 

Viola (Pansy) 

This popular plant is a favorite of rich and poor alike, every- 
one, who has a garden, growing a few Pansies. This is deservedly 
so, in view of its wonder- 
ful variety of color and its 
free-flowering habit to- 
gether with the ease with 
which it may be grown. 
The Pansy delights in a 
cool moist situation, and 
generally gives its best flow- 
ers in cool damp weather 

in early Spring. As soon Pan«y. 

as the hot dry weather com- 
mences, the flowers become small, and the growth spindling and 
weak. The soil for Pansies should be of good strong loam en- 
riched with a generous addition of well-decompmsed cow- or 

Plant, in October, one foot apart, and give a good mulching 
of old manure after planting; as the Pansy thrives best in a 



moist cool soil, watering should not be neglected, and the soil 
must be kept moist at all times; if the soil is allowed even once 
to become dust-dry the crop for that season will be injured. 

Propagate by seeds sown, to the depth of an eighth of an 
inch, in a cool frame or lath-house and shaded from the sim by 
the glass bemg covered with burlap or other shading material. 
July is about the best season for sowing the seeds. This will 
allow the grower to have strong bushy plants ready to be set out 
by October first, or as soon as the Summer-blooming flowers are 
over, when the Pansies may take the place of those finished 
blooming, and occupy the ground through the Winter and early 
Spring; along the cool coast counties a second sowing may, in 
January or February, be made for Summer-flowering. As soon 
as the young plants are large enough to be handled, they must 
be pricked out in beds or boxes in hght, rich soil composed of 
one-third good friable loam, one-third leaf-mold and one-third 
equal quantities of sand and old manure, the whole being well 
mixed together by being turned over several times. It is impor- 
tant that the young plants be well rooted, and planted with a 
good ball of earth adhering to the roots. 

Varieties of Pansies are divided into three sections, viz.: 
Selfs, White-grounds and Yellow-grounds. 

Selfs are all of one color and are either black, maroon, white 
or yellow. White-ground and Yellow-ground varieties are those 
which have a large dark center, then a central ring of white or 
yellow and an outer band of dark color. 

The fancy division has the various colors and tints curiously 
blotched, striped and edged. Still another section, though not 
the true Pansy, is the Viola comuta, or horned-violet, which, 
with its many showy self colors, makes an excellent bedding 
plant during the Summer months. 



Viola odorata ,{Violei) 

This favorite, sweet-scented Winter and early-Spring flower 
is grown by everyone who cultivates a garden whether in a 
twenty-five foot lot or in grounds of many acres. In the cooler 
portions of the State it thrives well in open, sunny situations, 
while in the hotter and dryer sections it grows best in shaded 
spots or in a situation facing the North. The Violet prefers soil 
of a light loamy nature well-enriched with plenty of old manure. 

Propagation is by nmners taken off the old plants about the 
first of March. After the groxmd is spaded and leveled, it should 
be raked fine and the young shoots planted from six to twelve 
inches apart, the strong growers (such as the CaUfomia, Prin- 
cess of Wales, etc.) twelve inches apart, and the Neapolitan, 
Marie Louise, etc., six inches apart. Should the weather be dry, 
the yoimg plants should be given a thorough watering; about the 
beginning of June give the surface of the ground a mulching of 
old manure an inch deep, and water frequently, not allowing the 
ground to get dry at any time during the growing season. 

The operation of replanting should be attended to each 
Spring as the old plants get worn out and weak if left in the 
same ground two or more years. 


The Zinnia, a native of Mexico, is one of the favorite flower- 
ing annuals, growing easily and being much used in the decora- 
tion of the flower-border and also for bedding. It thrives best 
in a deep rich soil and a simny situation. 

Sow the seeds, one-eighth of an inch deep, in a warm green- 
house or frame in early March, or in the open border in April. 
When they are two inches high, prick off the young seedlings 
four inches apart, in boxes, if they have been raised under glass, 
or, if sown where they are to bloom, thin them out to one foot 



apart. About the first of June top-dress the surface of the 
ground with old manure and give abundance of water during the 
growing season. If mulching is objected to, keep the soil hoed 
after each watering, to prevent it from baking and cracking. The 
Zinnias, from the time the yoxmg plants germinate, should be 
kept growing freely; at no time should they be allowed a check 
either from poor soil or from want of water, as the least check to 
their growth causes them to throw poor small flowers, and they 
never seem to do well afterwards. 





HERE grounds have the required space, water 
eflFects should be introduced, nothing in nature 
being more brilliant in its effects than water, 
whether in motion, tumbling in creek-form, which 
perhaps is the most striking of all, or in repose in 
pond or lake. 

The size or extent of the body of water should of course be 
in proportion to the extent of the unproved grounds. A glimpse 
of a river or creek in the background gives a wonderfully grand 
finish to an ideal landscape, while a modest water-eflFect in pond- 
shape adds a charm to the smaller garden or grounds such as 
nothing else can possibly give. 

In very few places are fine water-eflFects more appreciated 
than in the middle and southerly counties of California. This 
is accounted for by the great lack of rain during several months 
of the ordinary year, say from April to October, when the whole 
State from Butte to San Diego is dry, brown and dusty, and, 
consequently, the pleasure from the prospect of a gushing foun- 
tain or a running creek or river is greatly enhanced, such a water- 
eflfect, in fact, being a positive relief to the eye. Every village 
and hamlet should have its foimtain-basin, as well as its drinking- 
place for horses and dogs, filled with clear water, for practical 
use and as a pleasing and effective ornament. 

Before making an artificial pond, first decide upon the site, 
the size, the shape which it may assume, the depth of water and 
the mode of construction. The proportion of water-effect in the 
garden-plan should be, as nearly as possible, one in ten; for 



example, in a garden of four acres, from one-quarter to one-half 
an acre should be water. 

It is hardly necessary to say that all these details as to the 
pond should first be carefully planned on paper, to scale. If 
the garden is laid out in the natural style, the outline of the 
water-surface should assume an irregular shape with deep bays 
and promontories, not only for the purpose of giving variety to 
the outline but also in order to have the opportunity of placing 
plants of different character in the locations best adapted to their 
requirements and habits, for some plants give better effects when 
planted on a bold point projecting into the water-line than when 
planted in a hollow or at the head of a bay, while others, which 
are low-growing, give much better results when planted close to 
the water and along the margin of a bay shore. 

In laying out a piece of water, there should be no straight or 
regular lines, that is, no point of land should be exactly a dupli- 
cate of any other point on the same pond, nor should there be 
a repetition of the shape of any of the bays or indentations along 
the shore line. 

After staking out the shore line, next clear the ground of any 
brush, stumps or rough weeds, and excavate to the required depth 
which should be at least three feet in the deepest part, gradually 
getting more shallow as the shore-line is approached. If the soil 
thus excavated is of good quality it will be of value for dressing 
any poorer ground in the neighborhood. 

After the excavation work is done, smooth and level the 
entire surface of the bottom and sides. Should the soil be of a 
loamy, rocky or sandy nature or at all porous, puddling-clay of 
a total thickness of six inches must be laid evenly over the entire 
surface, this being spread in two layers, first one of four inches 
thick and then a finishing coat of two inches. The clay for the 
puddling should be free from all rock and should contain not 
more than twenty-five per cent of sand. After the first layer of 
four inches has been spread, the next operation is to break the 

[ 282 ] 


clay up with picks and hammers imtil all lumps are broken, when 
a good soaking with water must be given. Then with a tamper 
not greater than one and one-half inches in diameter at the lower 
end, give the whole mass a thorough tamping until it is of the 
consistency of putty as used for glass setting. After the first 
layer has been puddled into shape and tamped firm and smooth, 
spread and treat the second layer in the same manner, finishing 
it with a flat tamper about six inches square at the lower end. 
This will give the whole a perfectly smooth finish. 

On the surface of the clay, it is well to spread a layer, one 
inch thick, of screened rock (say of about one-half inch in size) 
to protect the clay from being disturbed by washing or by poles 
or rods being driven through the clay-bed thus making holes 
through which the water would escape. 

Where the pond is small, a thin layer of concrete should be 
spread on top of the rock, as it makes the work of cleaning away 
sediment or dirt much easier. 

In addition to the overflow pipe, there should be, for con- 
venience in cleaning out the pond, a pipe of at least six inches 
in diameter, placed in the bottom at the lowest spot of the pond, 
on the inner end of which pipe a strainer should be screwed to 
keep leaves or other litter from entering and thus choking the 
pipe. Of course drainage pipes are useful only where suflScient 
fall can be had in the groimd adjoining the lake. Where a 
sufficient fall cannot be had, drainage pipes will not be of any 
use and should not be put in. 

Where the groimds are laid out in a formal manner, the pond 
should also be made formal in shape, either circular, like some 
foimtain-basins, with granite or concrete copings, or octagonal, 
or of some other architectural design in keeping with the 

When the lake or pond is ready for the water, the next study 
is what plants, if any, should adorn the surface of the water and 
how they should be arranged. Before turning in the water, and 



where it is decided to plant Water Lilies, it is well to have basins 
constructed for holding the amount of soil necessary for growing 
these very interesting and beautiful flowers. These soil-boxes 
or basins should be made, if possible, of brick or concrete and 
should be about fifteen inches deep and four feet square. Fill 
them with soil composed of one-half rich surface loam and one- 
half old well-decomposed cow- or horse-manure, the loam and the 
manure having been first thoroughly mixed together, a month or 
so before being used, by being turned over several times. Fill the 
boxes to within two inches of the top and top-dress with one 
inch of coarse gravel. 

After setting out the Water Lilies (which should be in eariy 
March) and as soon as the roots are planted, turn in the water 
and fill the pond imtil the water covers the boxes three inches, 
keeping the water at that level until the plants begin to throw up 
their young leaves when the pond may be filled to the surface 
or the level designed. 

The planting of the margin should now also be attended to, 
the semi-aquatics such as the Japanese Iris, the Papyrus anti- 
quorum and the Calla being set out nearest the water or where the 
water is not more than a few inches deep. On the promontories 
may be planted Bamboos, Arundos, Birches, Willows, Pampas 
grass, Eulalias, and, where the grounds are very large, the Swamp 
Cypress of Louisiana (Taxodium distichum). 

In planting out the Water Lilies, place the Nelumbiums in 
the largest basins and the smaller-growing Nymphaeas in the 
basins nearer the edges. 

The Nymphaea odorata, a native of the Eastern States, will 
be found one of the best for general planting, having beautiful 
pure-white flowers of delicious fragrance. There are several 
varieties of this lovely species, including Nymphaea Carolinensis 
with petals of delicate pink, a good grower with large flowers. 
Another charming variety is Nymphaea exquisita, a moderate 
grower with rose-colored flowers, while Nymphaea sulphurea, 



with yellow flowers, is one of the very best for cultivation in our 
ponds, its flowers being large and standing up clear of the water 
from six to eight inches and its leaves being beautifully mottled 
with chestnut-colored spots, 

Nymphjea tuberosa, a native of the Western States, has a 
beautiful flower pure-white and sometimes as large as nine inches 
across. This species should be planted where the water is from 
four to five feet deep, and its roots should be kept from mixing 

Small Lake Bordered with Willow and Pine. 



with the smaller growers, otherwise it will starve them out and 
choke them. There is a rose-colored variety of this species which 
is identical Vith the original excepting in the color of the 

Nymphaea alba and its varieties are also very desirable, all 
having beautiful flowers and handsome leaves, among the best 
being Nymphaea candidissima with pure-white flowers of large 
size standing clear of the water. Nymphaea fulgens, as its name 
implies, is a brilliant crimson with flowers beautifully cupped; 
this variety should be in every collection. Nymphaea rosea is 
another charming variety with flowers varying in color from 
pink to purple. 

Then there are the Marliacea Hybrids most of them bearing 
large flowers in many shades of color, some pink, some red and 
some yellow, while others have stamens of a different color from 
the petals making effective combinations. 

Nymphaea caerulea, a distinct species with blue flowers and 
yellow stamens, ought to be in every collection. 

Nymphaea Zanzibarensis (the Royal Purple Lily) is without 
doubt one of the finest of the Water Lily family, being a strong 
grower and a free bloomer with rich purple stamens and petals 
of intense blue, and having a very sweet odor. The foliage is a 
rich green, the under-side being purple. This species has a rose- 
colored variety, which, on account of its color, is also very 

Nymphaea Devoniensis and its varieties are another class 
which add much to the attractiveness of the water-garden as 
they are night-flowering. They are very vigorous growers and 
free-bloomers, the flowers, under good cultivation, growing 
sometimes to a size of twelve inches across; they are of a bright 
rosy red and are borne on stems well above the water. 

Nymphaea lotus, from Egypt, is a beautiful white-flowering 
species also blooming in the night. 

Nymphaea dentata, another white-flowered species, is one of 


Pond with LiUes. 


the best and largest of the night-flowering varieties; it has ser- 
rated leaves of deep green. 

Victoria Regia, one of the most remarkable productions of 
the vegetable kingdom, is a native of tropical South America. It 
bears leaves from five to seven feet in diameter with a vertical 
rim from three to six inches high. Its dehciously fragrant flowers 
measure from twelve to fifteen inches in diameter and open about 
five o'clock in the evening, dosing the following morning about 
nine o'clock, reopening about five or six o'clock the same after- 
noon and closing, for good, the morning of the second day. The 
first time the flowers open they are white slightly tinted with 
pink, the second time they open they are of a rosy pink. To 
grow well, this species or any of its varieties must have a simny, 
sheltered situation, and the water must be kept at a temperature 
of about eighty degrees Fahrenheit, which of course necessitates 
artificial heat, this being produced by hot water pipes running 
through the tank or pond in which the Victoria is to be grown. 

Nelumbium speciosum (Egyptian Lotus) is one of the best 
of the species, being a vigorous grower and a free bloomer with 
flowers of rosy pink. 

Nelumbium luteum (the American lotus) is not quite so 
strong-growing as the Egyptian species, but, on account of its 
color, should be in every collection; its flowers are pale yellow. 
There is also a white-flowered, strong-growing species named 
Nelumbium album grandiflorum, whose white flowers make it 
very desirable, as they contrast well with the pink flowers of the 

The Nelumbiums all like a well-sheltered situation and plenty 
of space to show to advantage. 

Propagate by seeds sown, in February, in pots filled with 
light sandy soil, the seeds being covered about one-quarter of an 
inch deep; submerge the pots, covering them to the depth of 
about three inches and keeping the water at a temperature of 
about seventy-five degrees Fahrenheit. When the seedlings have 



made two or three leaves, pot them singly in three-inch pots, 
using a slightly richer soil than was reconunended for the seed 
pots; as soon as they have filled the pots with roots, give them 
larger pots; plant out the hardier Sfiecies, such as Nymphaea 
alba or Nymphfea odorata in April, and the Nelumbiums a 
month later. 

Propagation may also be effected by division of the roots or 
rhizomes, in early Spring before growth commences; plant at 
once where they are to bloom. 

Babylonian Willow. 

[292 I 




I HIS chapter treats of various kinds of vase-plants 
suitable for halls and apartments, and how to grow 

In order to be successful in growing plants in the 
halls or ordinary rooms of the dwelling-house, we 
must select those accustomed naturally to the strong heat of 
tropical and semi-tropical regions, as they stand the dry and 
dusty air of a living room with a temperature varying from fifty 
to seventy-five degrees Fahrenheit. 

It should perhaps first be stated that if the plants are in- 
tended to be kept close to the glass of the windows and exposed to 
the Southerly sun, a class will have to be selected different from 
those which can be grown successfully if placed either in the 
middle or toward the side of the room where they will be par- 
tially shaded. 

Among the latter class, that is, those which thrive well in the 
middle or side of the room, and, while enjoying the light, are 
injured by the direct rays of the sun shining through glass, may 
be mentioned that best of all parlor vase-plants, Kentia Belmo- 
riana, the ideal condition and exposure for this plant being in 
a room facing the West, the pot being placed on a level with the 
window-sill about three feet from the glass. The window-shade 
should be kept up all day until the sun gets round, when it 
should immediately be pulled down and left down until the sun 
leaves the window, at which time it should again be raised. 

Among other plants which do well in similar conditions 
and with similar treatment may be mentioned the Rubber 



Plant (Ficus elastica), Dracaena Terminalis, Pandanus utilis, 
DieflFenbachias and Alocasias, also some of the stronger-growing 
Marantas, such as Maranta zebrina, Maranta bicolor and Cal- 
adium esculentum. 

Bamboos make most effective hall plants when well grown. 
They also stand shade well. Another favorite which thrives 
imder all conditions is the Aspidistra lurida, and mention should 
be made of the Aspidistra lurida variegata, whose broad sword- 
shaped leaves have a fine effect either in a hall or a sitting room. 

The Cocos plumosa, Seaforthia, Corypha australis, Latania 
borbonica, Areca lutescens, and Areca Baurii, also Raphis fla- 
belliformis (the Japanese cane palm) are all satisfactory in the 
decorating of apartments. 

In a general way it may be stated that most of the plants 
which carry thick, leathery, smooth foliage are satisfactory and 
are easily grown, whereas most of the plants which have thin, 
transparent foliage, or those of hairy, downy or russety texture 
do poorly. The dust sticks to the fibres of the thin leaves and 
to the rough surface of those which have a downy or hairy tex- 
ture, and, as this dust cannot be washed or sponged off, the pores 
get choked up and the leaves turn yellow on accoimt of their 
limgs being clogged, so that imless taken where the air is free 
from dust the plants will sicken and die. 

Among window plants which stand a little sun and, as a 
rule, thrive well, may be mentioned the shrubby Begonias, Ger- 
aniums, Petimias and Nasturtiiuns. Few of the Fern family are 
happy in the dry air of our apartments, although some of those 
with leathery, smooth foliage do well for a time. The Boston 
Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata), Pteris cretica and Pteris argyraea 
are among the best for this purpose. For shady nooks or verandas 
many Ferns do extremely well, the Five-finger Fern and the 
Woodwardia making excellent growth. 





[GREAT many people, especially of those residing in 
large cities, have neither the room to grow well, 
nor perhaps the money to spare for the purchase of 
expensive palms or vases for the decoration of their 
sitting-rooms. But all have a window and a win- 
dow-sill where a surprising number of different kinds of handsome 
foliage and flowering plants may be grown well. Even if the 
window-sill be no wider than six inches, a very good window 
effect may be had, and nothing adds more to the appearance of a 
building than a few window boxes. 

The window box should not be narrower than six inches, with 
a depth of about eight inches, and should be as long as the width 
of the window. After the box is made, bore holes about one 
inch in diameter and about five or six inches apart in the bottom 
of the box; over each hole place a flat piece of broken pot or 
a flat stone; without disturbing these flat stones, put into the 
box an inch of gravel or broken pot-sherds, and, over this, a layer 
of moss to keep the soil from mixing with the drainage material ; 
then fill the box to within one inch of the top with soil composed 
of one-half good surface loam, one-quarter leaf-mold and one- 
quarter sharp, clean sand together with a sprinkling of old manure 
well-rotted, the whole having been turned over and mixed 
together several times before being used. In this soil set out 
the plants selected for the window box. 

Among window plants which generally succeed well, Ivy 
Geraniums of various colors may safely be depended upon, as 
they stand rough treatment and grow well in any exposure. 



Where the window faces East or North, the common Fuchsia 
does splendidly; the Nasturtium and the Mesembryanthemum 
also give fine results, while the Pelargonium zonale and the 
common scarlet Geranium can always be counted upon to flourish. 
Blue Lobelias, Heliotrope, Mignonette, Sweet Peas, the dwarf 
Campanulas and the Tuberous Begonias, when placed in a window 
facing East, will give gorgeous masses of color. Many of the 
dwarf Cactus, etc., also do well if given a Southern exposure. 

In Spring, fine effects may be had if boxes are filled with 
Pansies, Violets, Hyacinths, Tulips, Daffodils and other Spring- 
flowering bulbs. 

Great care should always be exercised in regard to the water- 
ing of the plants; see that the soil is kept moist but not too wet. 
When watering, give enough water to thoroughly wet the soil 
but do not give any more until the soil shows signs of being dr>' 
at least one-half inch from the surface. 

The window box should be overhauled once a year, the best 
time being in Spring just before growth commences. All of the 
plants should be taken out of the box, and fresh soil as well as 
clear drainage material put in, preferably young plants being set 
in the box. 

When it is desirable to have a more continuous color effect 
than is possible with Simimer and Fall-flowering plants only, it 
is well to have a double set of boxes, one set for the Sununer and 
Autumn decorations and another set for the growing of plants 
which make an attractive showing in Winter and early Spring. 
Some of the popular Summer and Fall-flowering plants have 
already been described. Prepare the W^inter and Spring boxes 
as suggested for the other plants and fill them with the same class 
of soil. Secure as early in the Fall as possible (say October ist 
to 25th) a collection of Hyacinths, Tulips, Narcissus and other 
bulbs, and plant them about six inches apart in the boxes. The 
box in which the Hyacinths are planted should be set out of doors 
in a position facing North, given a good soaking of water, and 



covered with sand to the depth (over the top of the box) of six 
inches. Allow them to remain in this position until they have 
made a growth of from four to five inches, then carefully remove 
the sand from the top of the box and gradually expose the 
blanched leaves to light and air; as soon as the leaves assume 
their natural green color the box may be placed in the window. 

Window BOKt. 



Tulips and Narcissus require the same treatment, excepting that 
only three inches of sand, instead of six inches, will be required 
to cover them. 

Pansies and Viola comuta as well as Forget-me-not make 
exceUent subjects for Winter and Spring-flowering window 
boxes. Sow the seeds of Pansies and also Forget-me-not in early 
July and plant them three inches apart in boxes as soon as they 
have made from four to six leaves. About November first they 
will be ready to be planted six inches apart in the window boxes. 
The Viola comuta seeds should be sown early in June and grown 
on as suggested for the treatment of the Pansy and Forget-me-not. 

Another charming Winter and early Spring- flowering plant 
suitable for decorating the window is the modest little Silene 
(catchfly) ; sow in July and grow as recommended for the Pansy. 

It may be stated that the dimensions of the box given here 
are for the narrowest window-sill; should the window-sill be 
twelve inches or more in width, much better results may be 
expected both in the health of the plants and the greater number 
of plants which may be grown. 

Should insects attack any of the plants, sponge the leaves with 
soap-suds, and, the following morning, sprinkle them with clear 
water. Keep the foliage clear of dust by syringing or spraying 
the leaves with clear, soft water. This will greatly encourage 
growth and assist in keeping the plants in good health. 





GREAT deal of pleasure without a large outlay of 
expense can be derived from a small Conservatory 
or even a Plant-room attached to the dwelling- 
house. In a small Conservatory, the first requi- 
site is perfect command of the ventilation, and 
the next, perfect command of the light by having the sides, 
which are exposed to the sun, provided with spring blinds or 
shades so that in clear, dry weather the direct rays of the sim 
may be kept off the foliage, for otherwise, the foliage is apt to 
become scorched and blistered. Besides, when the air of the Con- 
servatory gets too hot and dry, it takes away from the leaves that 
lively, fresh finish which is so much of the beauty of the plant 
carrying perfect leaves. 

We build a Conservatory to enable us to enjoy the vegetation 
of the tropics or of countries with warmer climates than our 
own. . Let us then fill the Conservatory with plants which cannot 
be successfully cultivated in the open air, and not with Roses, 
Carnations, Geraniums, etc. 

The plants best suited for Conservatories are the finer Palms 
and Dracaenas, the finer Ferns such as the Adiantiun, the Daval- 
lia, Asplenium, the tropical Gymnogramma and many others 
which are easily grown in a temperature between fifty-five and 
eighty degrees Fahrenheit, provided they are sheltered from the 
direct rays of the sun, are given a moist atmosphere and are not 
subjected to cold draughts of air blowing through the plant 

Special care must be given to preparing the soil for Palms. 
Most of the Palm family enjoy a good, strong soil, one com- 



posed of one-half good yellow surface loam, one quarter well- 
rotted horse-manure, and one-quarter well-decomposed leaf- 
mold, with a sprinkling of good sharp sand, suiting them well. 
A soil composed of these parts should be turned over several 
times, so as to insure that all are well-mixed together. 

Before potting, the pots must be thoroughly clean and dr\-. 
If the pots are new, they must be well soaked in water (being left 
in the water sufficiently long to get saturated) and then allowed 
to dry before being used. When a new pot is not soaked before 
being used, it frequently happens that the first few waterings, 
instead of being beneficial to the plant, only serve to soak the 
pot, while the ball of soil, which the pot contains, becomes so 
dry that it is a difficult matter to again get it into a satisfactor\*, 
moist condition. 

One of the most common errors of amateur gardeners is to put 
their plants into pots which are too large. A pot which will 
hold all the roots, leaving one-half of an inch of fresh soil around 

Interior of Greenhouse. 
[300 I 


the old ball, is quite large enough for a change of pot; for example, 
if a plant growing in a four-inch pot should require a change, 
it should have the ball of earth reduced so that it may be re- 
potted in one which is five inches in diameter. Over-potting 
should be guarded against, as if a Palm or a Fern is given a pot 
which is too large, a little over-watering sours the soil and kills 
the roots. 

In taking a plant out of a pot to put it into a larger one, the 
pot, in which the plant is, should be turned upside down and the 
edge of the pot tapped gently so as to start the ball of soil. All 
the drainage material must be taken from the bottom of the 
ball. The roots must be carefully examined, and, if they are not in 
good health and condition, must be cut, with a knife, back into 
sound wood: any loose soil should be removed, and then the plant 
can be repotted in a pot a size larger than it formerly occupied. 
This, of course, is provided the roots are in good condition, as if 
they are not so, the plant should be repotted in a pot the same 
size as formerly, and should be kept in that size of pot until the 
plant forms fresh roots, when it should be repotted in one a size 

The question as to what size of pot should be used for a plant 
is one which is often asked. This depends not only upon the size 
of the plant, but also upon what kind of plant it is; for example, 
whether it is a plant which is a fast, strong grower, or one of 
slow growth; whether its roots are soft and fleshy, or whether 
they are of a fine, hair-like texture, etc., etc. Palms, for instance, 
which carry six leaves, three feet in length, will do better and 
will be more easily kept in a healthy-growing condition if potted 
in good soil in a seven-inch pot than if in one which is much 

See Chapter XXII, "The Calendar of Operations," for sug- 
gestions and detailed instructions as to the work in the Green- 
house or Conservatory, month by month, throughout the year. 





ISEASES of plants are many and varied, some 
being the result of attacks of injurious insects, 
while others are caused by fungus growth 
which comes from improper nutrition and 
poor circulation or from very sudden atmos- 
pheric changes:— for example, from warm, balmy weather 
which encourages rapid growth, to cold, harsh winds which 
seem to chill the whole plant while checking its growth. The 
plant in these conditions suffers particularly from the fact that, 
on account of the soil being warm, the roots continue sending 
up supplies of sap of greater quantity than the leaves and soft 
stems (being so chilled and semi-paralyzed by the cold air) are 
able to assimilate, and thus there is caused a choking of the sap- 
vessels which greatly weakens the plant, so that it gets into a con- 
dition susceptible to an attack by any disease. Unless the weather 
moderates so that the plant can again make vigorous growth and 
throw off the attack, it may suffer severely and take weeks and 
sometimes even months to recover. 

The most common of the fungus diseases is undoubtedly the 
Powdery Mildew which attacks leaves, stems, flowers and fruits. 
It appears like a thin white powder at first over the leaves, after- 
wards spreading to the stems, stopping at once and entirely the 
further growth of the part attacked. It is propagated by spores 
which increase with amazing rapidity, often dwarfing and some- 
times killing outright the whole plant. There are several kinds 
of Mildew including the Rose Mildew, the Grape Vine Mildew, 


the Hop Mildew, the Pear Mildew, etc. All varieties of Mildew 
may be checked by dusting flowers of sulphur over the affected 
and the adjoining parts of the plant. 

As soon as the least speck of Mildew is noticed on any part of 
the plant, the affected part should at once be given a good dusting, 
and this work should not be delayed an hour longer than is neces- 
sary, otherwise serious damage will be the result: — ^for example, 
if the plant attacked is a Rose, the Mildew, if not checked, wiD 
ruin the crop of flowers. 

Bordeaux Mixture is also a good cure for Mildew, and may 
be used if sulphur should fail. It should be applied in the same 
manner as sulphur. 

A sulphur bellows made especially for use in this work may 
be procured from any seedsman at little cost, and it will be found 
that the use of the beUows economizes the sulphur. 

Green Flies (Aphides), sometimes called Plant Lice, are very 
destructive to the yoimg shoots and foliage of plants, especially 
Roses on which they congregate in large numbers and send their 
long sharp feelers into the bark and leaves, sucking the juice 
from the plants. As they multiply with astonishing rapidity, 
they, if not destroyed, will eventually cause the destruction 
of the parts affected, and this in a very short time. 

The best remedies for successfully getting rid of these pests 
are Tobacco and Whale-oil Soap ; even common soap-suds, when 
not too strongly impregnated with soda or chloride of lime, will 
be found effective for this purpose if the foliage is syringed 
freely in the evening and sprayed with clear water through the 
hose the foDowing morning. This should be done three consecu- 
tive evenings. 

To apply the tobacco, one pound of the common tobacco- 
leaf should be first soaked in six gallons of hot water to which 
should be added one-half pound of soft black or whale-oil soap. 
These should be mixed together by the syringe, and the plant 
should be thoroughly syringed with the liquid in the evenings 



and washed by the hose with clear water early the following 

Sometimes it is not desirable to use tobacco in liquid form. 
In that case the leaves can be dusted freely with tobacco dust 
which should be left on the foliage for about forty-eight hours, 
and then washed off with the hose. Should the first application 
be not effective, a second or even a third application can be made 
until all the flies are cleared off. 

Several prepared mixtures are sold by seedsmen, such as Gis- 
hurst's Compound, Fir-tree oil, etc., which, if applied as directed 
on the labels, will be found effective. Often water used freelv 
with the hose under good pressure will clean them off if applied 
before the flies have got too strong a hold on the plant. 

There are other kinds of Aphides some of which are black and 
attack Cherry and other fruit trees, but they generally yield to 
the same treatment. 

When the Aphides attack plants in a green-house, fumigation 
with tobacco stems will be found the best remedy. A close, dull 
evening should be selected and the foliage of the plants should be 
perfectly dry. 

To effectively fumigate a green-house it is necessary to get 
an iron pot into which should be put a few pieces of lighted char- 
coal, on which should be spread a few tobacco stems. On top of 
the tobacco a layer of damp moss should be placed, and the house 
should be densely filled with the smoke, care being taken that no 
flame arises in the burning. The house must be kept perfectly 
closed for twelve hours. Then the ventilator should be opened 
and the plants syringed freely with clean, tepid water. Should 
the first smoking not be effective, the operation can be repeated 
a second evening in the same manner, and, when the fly has had 
a long hold on the plants, it may be necessary to fumigate even 
a third time. 

A pest which is responsible for a great many of our worst 
failures in plant cultivation is Thrips, as it attacks some of our 



most deKcate and most finely leaved plants, and, from the fact 
that this insect is so very small, it is generally not noticed until 
considerable damage has been done. 

It feeds only on the juices and fleshy parts of the leaves, leav- 
ing the fibrous parts untouched, this giving the plant a withered, 
blighted appearance. 

This insect may be recognized by its narrow, black or brown 
body, and its four straight narrow wings which are fringed with 
hairs in saw-like edges. There are several varieties, but as they 
are all equally destructive and yield to the same treatment, it is 
unnecessary to further refer to their identification. When the 
pest is found to be infesting a green-house, the fumigating treat- 
ment as recommended for Aphides produces satisfactory results. 
When the insect is foimd on shrubs out of doors, the plants should 
be well syringed with, tobacco water, care also being taken to see 
that the plants are well watered at the roots, this watering giving 
additional vigor to the plants which will tend to render the Thrip 
attack harmless. 

The Red Spider is a small eight-legged mite which receives 
its name from its color (always of a rusty red). It has the spider 
habit of spinning a fine web, generally on the imder side of the 
leaves of trees. It is so small that it is almost invisible to the 
naked eye. 

When Red Spiders establish themselves on a plant, they spin 
webs of very fine texture on the under side of the leaves. Then 
by means of their suckers they bore into the leaves and suck out 
the juice or sap. The leaf becomes yellow and covered with 
spots, ultimately dies and drops prematurely. Sometimes an 
attack of this pest strips the tree months before the usual time ; 
if a fruit tree, the crop for the year fails, and besides, the branches 
formed for the following year are stunted and immature. 

The Red Spider seldom attacks plants in a good healthy con- 
dition, imless they suffer from drought. Hence any measures 
which encourage vigorous growth, such as plenty of watei^at the 



roots, frequent hosing overhead, mulching the ground around the 
plants with manure and freely cultivating the soil, diminish the 
effects of the attack to a great extent. 

When a plant is attacked by Red Spiders, equal parts of std- 
phur and coal-soot should be mixed and dusted freely over the 
entire plant, or one pound of sulphur-dust with two pounds of 
soot should be put into six gallons of water and syringed over the 
plant attacked. If this pest gets into a green-house, the hot water 
pipe should be painted with a paste made of sulphur and quick- 
lime in equal parts, If the green-house is heated, the leaves should 
be dusted with sulphur and soot as recommended for out of door 
plants, while the atmosphere of the green-house should be kept 
in a moist condition, and, if these suggestions are followed and 
careful attention is given to the watering of the roots, the Red 
Spider will not make much headway. 

Caterpillars are of various kinds, some species attacking only 
Oaks, while others confine their operations to the leaves of the 
Rose, and still others are found only on the Hawthorn or Cab- 
bage, etc. Those which live in webs, such as the common Oak 
tree caterpillar, can easily be cut off and destroyed by waiting 
until evening when they invariably return home after feeding 
on the Oak leaves aU day. The branch on which they have woven 
their webby home should be cut off, and the caterpillars cian then 
be crushed or piled up and set fire to. In the case of those whose 
nests are too high to be reached by hand, the branch can be cut 
with long-handled shears and the caterpillars can be destroyed 
as just suggested, or, if preferred, an oiled rag can be tied to a 
long pole and lit, and the web of the nest of caterpillars touched 
with the lighted rag, their home thus being destroyed and the 
whole colony killed. No attempt should be made to destroy them 
in the middle of the day, as they are at that time feeding all over 
the tree, and any which are overlooked will immediately com- 
mence building a new nest, and consequently multiply the nimiber 
of nests to be destroyed. 



The common Rose caterpillar is easily got rid of by hand- 
picking or by dusting with Paris green. 

Slugs are about the commonest pest, and these destructive 
nuisances are weU known to all garden owners. They seem par- 
tial to soft-wooded plants of low growth, hiding under the leaves 
which touch the ground, and feeding on the undergrowth and 
flower stalks, seeming to take delight in eating holes into or pieces 
out of the leaves and flower-stems, thus ruining many promising 

Among the most effective remedies are baits of cabbage and 
lettuce leaves laid near the plants which need protection. These 
traps should be set in the evening and examined the next morn- 
ing; the slugs should be shaken off and covered with lime, salt 
or wood ashes. All of these applications should be repeated at 
least once, as the slugs seem to have strength enough to crawl off 
with one coat of the dust and to throw it off with a coat of slime, 
but the second application invariably kills them. Frequent dust- 
ing of the groimd immediately around where the plants are 
troubled has a great tendency to drive off the slugs. A little dust- 
ing of lime close to the neck of favorite plants is also a good cure 
and a better preventive. A dressing of soot is a very good fer- 
tilizer and a good protection against all the varieties of slugs 
and snails. 

The Scale insects are among the most dangerous and trouble- 
some of injurious insects, a single female raising from two hun- 
dred to five hundred at a single brood. They are said to hatch 
four or five generations a year. For the clearing of nursery stock, 
hydrocyanic acid gas is frequently used by fiunigating, but, as 
it is necessary to have the use of a tent in doing this, it is not 
always convenient for the amateur, and, imless the operation is 
very carefully carried out, damage to the plant may result. 

A favorite remedy for the common black or brown scale is a 
strong mixture of tobacco and whale-oil soap, the soap suffocating 
them by closing the breathing pores along the sides of their bodies. 

[ 307 1 


Use about one-quarter pound of the soap and two oiinces of 
extract of tobacco to a gallon of water and syringe the plants 
about three times a week, syringing with clear water the day fol- 
lowing the application of the mixture; continue the spraying 
xmtil all of the scale are washed off. 

Canary Islands Date-palm. 





[N WRITING this book, it has been at times 
convenient to apply terms commonly in use by 
professional gardeners. 

As the exact significance of some of these 
may not be known to all readers, it has been 
thought that the following explanations and directions may be 
of service. 


As stated in Chapter VI, mulching is the best means of pre- 
serving a steady degree of moisture in the soil and of keeping it 
at an even temperature. It also prevents the soil from cracking 
and proves beneficial on account of its substance being washed 
into the soil by rains or artificial waterings; in fact, there is no 
practice more beneficial to newly planted trees or plants, of almost 
any kind, than a good mulching, especially in a climate like ours. 
It saves much labor in watering, and, as has just been stated, is 
the best means of preserving a uniform degree of moisture in the 
soil surrounding the root. This is emphasized by repetition, as it 
is a most important point and, other things being equal, plants 
will languish or thrive just in proportion as this condition is 

Although mulching is apparently a very simple operation, it 
must be carefully done. Before mulching a newly planted tree, 
the soil should be shaped in the form of a basin, the rim of which 
is extended one foot beyond the extremity of the roots. The rim 
should be three or four inches higher than the bottom of the basin 
so that rain or water applied artificially will be retained. The 



mulch should be kept at least three inches away from the stem 
of the tree. 

The best mulch for trees is half-decomposed stable-manure, 
which should be spread about three inches thick and levelled 
evenly; about half an inch of soil should be spread over the 
manure to keep it from shifting in event of heavy wind. Where 
stable-manure cannot be had, half-rotted tree-leaves, short grass 
cuttings and even tan-bark are suitable. 

The practise of mulching may be carried into the flower-beds, 
as well as to the trees and shrubs. The writer has personally 
found the mulching of flowering plants to be of great value. The 
soil is not compressed by water nor baked into a crust by the 
sun; evaporation is arrested and the growth materially in- 

In mulching flowering plants the material to be used should 
be weU-rotted stable-manure or thoroughly decomposed leaf-coil 
and should not be spread more thickly on the surface than one- 
half inch. 

The mulching of lawns should be also very carefully done. 
Owing to the continuous, heavy, artificial watering necessary in 
our dry climate, mulching is of great benefit both in preserving 
the health and vigor of the grass and in preventing evaporation. 
July is the best month for doing this. After about two months 
of watering with the hose or sprinkler, the soil will be found to 
have become hard and washed looking while the small roots of 
the grass will be partially exposed thus necessarily requiring more 
frequent and more copious watering. The best mulch for a lawn 
in this condition is a covering of about one-half inch of well-rotted 
stable-manure spread evenly over the entire surface of the lawn. 
This will give a soft springy surface and renewed life and growth 
to the grass while its color will become much darker. It will not 
then require nearly so much water to keep fresh and vigorous. 

Mulching newly sown grass or other seeds means spreading a 
thin layer of clean, fresh straw over the surface of the ground, its 



purpose being to shade the ground until the seeds germinate. The 

straw should be raked oflF when the grass is one inch high. 



This is a term which is applied to the removal of small seed- 
ling plants, from the seed-bed, to pots or boxes. The operation 
is generally carried out as soon as the young seedlings are about 
one inch in height. They should be lifted from the seed-bed by 
hand, the soil shaken carefully from the roots and the plants 
placed singly on a thin board or on the surface of the soil in the 
box in which the young seedlings are to be pricked out. They 
should then be taken singly by the upper leaves between the 
finger and thumb of the left hand ; a hole should be made in the 
soil with the forefinger of the right hand or with a dibble and the 
roots of the young seedling should be carefully placed into that 
hole so that the lower leaf or leaves of the plant rest on the sur- 
face; the soil should then be gently pressed about the roots. 
When the box or pot is filled, the yoimg plants should receive a 
gentle watering with the watering-pot through a fine rose. They 
should then be returned to a position and temperature similar to 
that in which they were grown, and shaded from strong sunshine 
for a few days or until the yoimg plants have made fresh roots 
when they may be gradually exposed to light and air. 


The usual method of increasing plants, provided by nature, 
is by seeds. Seeds increase species, but as the peculiarities of 
varieties can rarely be perpetuated in the same manner, there 
arose the necessity of finding a method of increasing a variety so 
that its qualities would not be altered, and this can be accom- 
plished by budding. The possibilities of grafting and budding 
however, have certain limitations. Those trees only which are 



allied to each other respond so that the budding operations can be 
successfully performed. 

As a general rule, the seed, cone, nut and mast-bearing wood 
should be worked on each other, and unless the stock and scion 
or bud are nearly related (such as varieties of the same species, 
species of the same genera, genera of the same order) the result 
will be imsuccessful. 

Budding is an operation by which a bud, together with a 
portion of the bark, is removed from a plant and inserted be- 
neath the inner bark of another plant or beneath the bark of the 
same plant. The best time for budding is when the cambium 
or sap is flowing freely, allowing the bark to be easily raised 
from the wood. When the stock and the tree or bush, from 
which the bud is taken, are in that condition, the operation will 
be successful and the union of the bud with the stock most readily 
effected. If the bark adheres firmly to the wood, it shows that 
the flow of sap has been arrested and in that case budding should 
not be attempted. 

In operating, take a shoot from the tree or bush (from which 
buds are to be worked) and immediately cut off the leaves within 
one inch of the stem; make a transverse incision in the stock, 
and, from the middle of this, make a longitudinal one. A bud 
should now be removed from the shoot by taking the shoot in 
the left hand and entering the knife about one-half inch below 
the bud, more or less, according to the size of the shoot and of 
the stock; with a clean, sloping cut pass the knife upward and 
inward till under the bud, and then slope outward so that the eye 
or bud may be nearly in the middle of the piece thus detached. 
In doing this, the knife will necessarily cut off a portion of the 
wood along with the bud; this should be removed. To do so, 
turn the surface upward, holding the piece between the fore- 
finger and thumb of the left hand, enter the point of the knife 
between the inner bark and upper extremity of the wood, raise 
the extremity a little, so that it can be taken hold of between 




the point of the knife and the nail of the thumb, and then by a 
twitch remove the wood. Be careful to see that, along with the 
wood, the core of the bud is not also removed. If the core comes 
along with the wood the bud is unlikely to be a success, and 
another bud should be taken. 

The bud is now ready for insertion. With the ivor>'^ handle 
of the budding knife, raise the bark of the stock at the incision 
before mentioned ; commencing at the comers immediately below 
the cross-cut, slip in the handle of the knife gently and carefully 
avoiding any forcing or scratching of the wood or bark. When 
the bark is sufficiently raised to admit the bud, take the bud by 
the leaf stalk and gently insert it by the assistance of the ivory 
handle. Let the upper part of the bud be at the cross-cut of the 
stock so that the bud may fit closely to the upper edge of the cut. 
The operation, to be done well, should be done quickly, for the 
organizing tissue is very delicate and soon becomes injured by 

The bud, after having been inserted, must be bound by fine 
matting or worsted, and, in doing this, care must be taken not 
to move the bud in any way which wiU cause friction and so 
injure the tissues below it. In tying, commence below the end 
of the incision and pass the tie closely round as far as the bud, 
keeping the bud close to the stock. Continue binding closely 
until reaching the cross incision; make one or two turns above 
the cross-cut and fasten the ends of the tie. The operation is now 

As soon as it has been ascertained that the bud has taken, 
the ties should be loosened and retied, to prevent the galling of 
the bud by the ties becoming too tight. 

When the bud has become thoroughly established, which will 
be known by the bud swelling and beginning to make new growth, 
the stock must be cut back close to the bud. Should the bud 
make a strong, soft shoot it may be necessary to support it for 



a few weeks by tying the shoot to a stake until hard, firm growth 
is attained. 

There are many other modes of budding, but the method 
described will be found the best for general use. 


Grafting is an operation in which two cut surfaces of the 
same plant or of different plants are placed so as to imite and 
grow together. The portion cut off is termed the scion or graft 
and the plant on which it is worked or grafted is called the stock. 

Whip-grafting is generally considered the best kind of graft- 
ing and is the one most extensively used. 

When the stock and the scion are of equal thickness, the wood 
of the cut surfaces when placed together, should cover each other 
completely and exactly, so that the inner bark of the stock touches 
the inner bark of the scion. 

In proceeding to operate, cut the stock in a sloping direction, 
terminating, if possible, above a bud. Then take the scion and 
cut it sloping from above and thin towards the end, the shape of 
the scion being similar to that of the stock; cut a split or tongue 
a little above the middle of the scion and a like tongue in the 
cut surface of the stock, the purpose of the tongues being to hold 
the parts together. The parts should then be secured by being 
tied with matting or other material and surrounded with graft- 
ing-wax, clay or some other substance which wiU exclude the air 
and wet. 

There are several other modes of grafting including Saddle- 
grafting, Cleft-grafting and Side-grafting, the object being in 
all systems to bring together the iimer bark so that the sap vessels 
of the stock will fit exactly with the sap vessels of the scion, and 
to securely keep them in position until a union is effected. 




A cutting is an entirely detached portion of a plant, usually 
a shoot or part of a shoot, having buds or buds and leaves. Cut- 
tings should be taken only from healthy plants and from parts 
of these which are not in a weakly state, and, further, only from 
those portions of the plants which have been exposed to full 
light and air, for, if the shoots or branches of a plant are not in 
a condition to make growth with a supply of nourishment from 
roots of the parent plant, they cannot, when made into cuttings, 
be expected to possess sufficient energy to produce good plants. 
A good cutting should possess a certain degree of finnness also, 
for, if the shoot is exceedingly soft and full of sap, it will not 
root so freely as one which is more mature. 

Cuttings of deciduous trees and shrubs should be taken off 
after the fall of the leaf and before the rise of the sap in Spring. 
The buds on the underground part of the cutting should be 
rubbed off. In making a cutting of a soft-wooded plant, the 
leaf should be cut off close to the stem on the part which is under- 
groimd when the cutting is set or planted. 

In planting a cutting of a deciduous tree or shrub, it is well 
to plant two-thirds of the cutting imderground, one-third only 
being allowed to remain above the soil. 

When making cuttings, a smooth, thin-bladed, very sharp 
knife should be used, so that the cut is clean and smooth. A 
blimt or rough-edged knife leaves a rough, bruised surface which 
rarely gives good results. When the cuttings have been selected 
and a sharp knife provided, take each cutting in the left hand, 
remove three or four of the lower leaves close to the stem and 
cut through the stem in a slightly slanting direction inmiediately 
below a bud or joint. The cutting is then ready to be planted, 
and should, as soon as possible, be placed in the soil in the posi- 
tion where it is to root. 




Suckers are underground shoots and should be taken up with 
all their roots attached. They may be taken up at any time when 
the parent plant or tree may be safely removed. 


A Layer is a branch or shoot, part of which is introduced into 
the soil and strikes root while fed by the parent plant. The 
operation is effected by simply bending down and burying, about 
an inch deep in the soil, the branch or shoot to be layered, and 
preventing it from springing up, by placing over it a hooked 
peg firmly set in the groimd. Before pegging it down, cut a slit 
in a slanting direction half through the shoot or branch; bend 
the shoot downward and place it about an inch deep in the 
groimd. Fasten it securely with the hooked peg; then bend the 
point of the shoot upward imtil the slit in the shoot is opened 
enough to allow a very little fine soil to enter the slit. Secure 
the foot of the shoot by tying it to a stake, care being taken not 
to sever the layer entirely from the parent plant. Cover the 
sUt portion with some light sandy soil and give a good watering. 
In a short time, the layers will emit roots. When the layer has 
rooted freely, sever the young plant from the parent plant and 
treat as recommended for young trees or plants. 


Offsets are short, lateral branches or shoots which root where 
they rest on the soil or imder its surface and thus serve for 


"Plant in nursery rows" is a term frequently used in the fore- 
going chapters. A "nursery" is a place where trees, shrubs or 
other plants are raised and grown for transplanting. The young 



plants are generally set out in lines or rows, hence the term "plant 
in nursery rows." 


'^Division of the Bulbs" is simply dividing clusters into 
single bulbs and planting them singly instead of in clusters. The 
same applies to "division of the roots," "division of the crowns," etc. 


Plant Frames are generally made of redwood boards one and 
one-half inches thick. Their dimensions vary, a good serviceable 
size being six feet long by three feet in width of sash. The frame 
on which the sash rests should be eighteen inches high on the 
back and eight inches high in front so that the sash, when in 
position, will have enough slope to shed off the rain. 

A Cool or Cold Frame is one which has no artificial heating. 

A Hot Frame is one which is placed on a heap of strawy 
stable-manure or other fermenting niaterial which has partially 
spent its heat, its temperature having fallen to about eighty 
degrees Fahrenheit. 

Hot-beds are very useful, especially in Spring, for encourag- 
ing rapid growth in tender plants or seedlings, as they supply a 
warm moist atmosphere very congenial to most of the tender 
plants. Cuttings also of various plants emit roots and grow 

much faster on a Hot-bed than when placed where there is only 
fire heat. 

To make up a Hot-bed, secure a quantity of fresh stable- 
manure and an equal quantity of tree-leaves, which have been 
recently collected; turn them over and mix them together three 
or four times every second day for eight days. Build the heap the 
size and shape of the frame to be used, and allow an extra width 
of two or three feet all around; spread the mixture evenly in 



layers of not more than six inches each, treading each layer firmly 
as spread mitil the bed is built up about four feet high or thick. 
Over the surface place a layer of ashes, sand, or leaf-mold, well 
decomposed, spreading it evenly about three inches thick. 

The Hot-bed is now ready for the frame, and after the rank 
steam has escaped, and the temperature of the air in the frame 
has fallen to eighty-five degrees Fahrenheit, it is ready for receiv- 
ing plants, cuttings or seeds. It is well to allow a little ventila- 
tion at the top of the frame night and day for a few days, after 
new beds are put up. 


What is meant by Bottom-heat is a bed of sand, ashes or 
other light plunging material, artificially heated either by hot 
water or steam pipes, by tanks filled with hot water or by a hot- 
bed made of fermenting material. In this sand or ash-bed the 
pots or pans or boxes are "plunged," being buried to the rim. 
Bottom-heat is considered indispensable for propagating by cut- 
tings or seeds in early Spring. 





AND Reclamation is a matter of considerable 
interest to those located in the coast counties 
of California. As the Park Commission of San 
Francisco has, in the process of construction of 
Golden Gate Park, overcome the diflSculties of 
sand reclamation, an account of how this has been done and 
of the work preparatory to the construction of the Park, follow- 
ing the reclamation, is probably the best way to treat the 
subject of this chapter. 

The sand dunes of San Francisco are situated in the extreme 
westerly portion of the city, and, bordering on the Pacific Ocean, 
lie entirely open and exposed to the storms of Winter and to the 
Sunmier winds which blow nearly every afternoon during the 
latter season at the rate of twenty or more miles per hour. 

This sand is composed of small particles of granite, clean and 
sharp, without any vegetable matter and having no clay or other 
soil mixed with it even in the smallest proportion. On account 
of the almost constant action of the wind, it was formerly kept 
ever on the move, and in heavy gales drifted like snow, at times 
being moved in a single day to a depth of three or four feet and 
often being carried a distance of over a hundred feet. 

How to tie this moving mass of sand and to hold and bind 
it from drifting was the first problem to be solved by the Park 

The first experiment tried was sowing barley-seed thickly 
over the entire area, harrowing and cross-harrowing the sand so 
as to cov^r the seed. In due course the seed sprouted and grew 
to a height of several inches, covering the sand and holding it 



fairly well for a few months, but, on account of barley being a 
shallow rooter and an annual, dying out in a few months, it 
failed to hold the sands together after July, and the winds of 
August started them moving again. 

The next attempt was made with the Yellow Lupin (Lu- 
pinus arboreus), a strong-growing, perennial shrub which is a 
native of this section. The seeds were collected and sown broad- 
cast over a large portion of the area, but this proved successful 
only in the better protected parts of the district. 

The Sea Bent Grass (Ammophila arenaria), a native of the 
maritime countries of Europe and successfully used in nearly all 
the coast countries of that continent, was next experimented 
with. This plant had been used in Denmark perhaps more than 
in any other country, but France, Holland, Italy, Spain and also 
Great Britain had reclaimed many thousands of acres by means 
of this wonderful sand-binder. 

The seeds were imported from France, and, first of all, were 
sown in the nursery. When two years old, the plants were taken 
up and planted out in the sand-dime district where they imme- 
diately took root and, by their tremendous root-growth, held the 
sands together and prevented them from moving. 

The great superiority of the Sea Bent Grass over all others 
reconmiended as sand-binders is that it is almost impossible to 
bury it so deeply in the sand that its crowns cannot push through 
to the surface. Even if buried many feet deep, it works its 
strong stems up to the air where new crowns form from which 
are sent down masses of strong, fleshy roots, anchoring the grass 
so firmly that the fiercest gales have but little effect on its growth. 

This grass is also a wonderful sand collector. Eleven years 
ago, when the Park Commission of San Francisco constructed 
the drive facing the ocean along the Great Highway, the line 
of the proposed roadbed was in many places below high water 
mark, so sand was scraped from below high water marb in order 
to raise the roadway to the proper level. 



When this was done, the slopes facing the ocean were planted 
with the Sea Bent Grass which soon took root and grew very 
strongly, the saline character of the sand evidently being suited 
to its requirements. In a few months these slopes were one mass 
of the strong, healthy grass with its thick, creeping, perennial 
roots anchored deeply in the sand. 

The mass of sand is thrown up from the ocean and left on 
the beach by thousands of tons, and, when dried by the sun, is 
blown inland by the winds, being carried many miles xmless ob- 

After the construction of. the driveway, this sand, when 
moved by the wind, was caught by the grass pladled on the 
slopes of the newly built road and held there, the grass pushing 
through the sand as it was pOed up, until today there is an 
embankment formed by this drift-sand which is from ten to 

Eucalyptus in Sand Near Coast. 


fifteen feet higher than the roadway and from a hundred to three 
hundred feet in width, firmly kept in position by this wonderful 

The culture of the grass is very simple. The roots are dug 
or pulled up by hand, and, if the ground to be operated on is 
reasonably level, the surface is plowed with an ordinary plow. 
A few of the roots are dropped about two feet apart into every 
third furrow and then covered by the plow, \mtil the entire tract 
is thus planted. Where the ground is abrupt or too steep for 
plowing, holes are dug a foot deep and about two feet apart 
and a few of the roots dropped into each hole, the sand around 
the roots being pressed firm by the foot. The best season for 
planting is February or March although the grass will do well 
if planted either earlier or later in the year, provided the sand 
is moist. It should, if possible however, be set out during rainy 
weather, as at such time there is no dry sand to get about the 
roots; besides, the rain settles the sand around the roots far 
better than any treading can possibly do. 

The sand-shifting having been stopped by the Bent Grass 
and no further trouble being apprehended from drifting, the next 
operation in the work of park building to be imdertaken by the 
Park Conunission was planting the ground with hardy trees and 

A great many different species of trees were experimented 
with, including those especially suggested by European for- 
esters, such as the Norway Maple, Sycamore, Maritime Pine, 
EngUsh Yew, Austrian Pine, the Elder and many others highly- 
recommended. In exposed situations all of these, with the excep- 
tion of the Maritime Pine, failed entirely. 

At the same time many of our native trees and shrubs, in- 
cluding Monterey Cypress, Monterey Pine, Yellow Pine as well 
as Alders and Maples were set out. The Cottonwood, Scrub 
Oak, and other varieties of Oaks were also given a trial, but, 
excepting the Monterey Cypress and Monterey Pine, all of them, 



like the hardier of the European introductions, did fairly well 
in the sheltered hollows only, where good soil and plenty of 
water were provided, while the Monterey Cypress and Monterey 
Pine alone stood the test of braving the storms and the blasting 
influence of the Summer winds in the more exposed places and 
the district close to the shore. 

Seeds of a great many trees were also introduced from Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand as well as from South America, and, 
much to our surprise, some of these gave fine results, the Acacia 
longifolia and the Leptospermum proving two of the best for 
this sort of work, these forming a close thicket of twiggy stems 
which provided perfect shelter for other species not so hardy. 
Eucalyptus of many species were set out by thousands, but only 
the common Blue and the rugged Red Gum were a success in 
the poorer sands, and none of them could stand the climatic 
conditions unsheltered within five himdred yards of the salt 
water. The above mentioned and a few other hardy varieties 
grew fairly well for a period of ten years, but after that time they 
seemed to become bark-bound and the growth became stunted, 
showing that the trees, after they begin to form heartwood, 
require a richer soil than that composed of pure sand. 

It therefore became necessary, in order to maintain a healthy 
vigorous growth in the yoimg forest trees, to supply them with a 
foreign fertilizer. This was done by utilizing the street sweep- 
ings from the down-town streets which were brought out to the 
Park by electric cars, and, from these cars, distributed by carts 
and wagons among the starving trees. The change produced by 
this means was amazing. A few months after the sweepings 
were spread over the surface, the trees took on fresh growth and 
appeared to get new life and vigor, the leaves becoming darker 
and more richly colored. 

In addition to the street sweepings, thousands of cubic yards 
of loam, clay, etc., have been carted into the Park each year for 
the formation and growth of lawns and shrubbery groups. 



When the sand has been bound and prevented from drifting, 
a forest of strong-growing trees established (giving the required 
shelter), and a good soil provided, the problem of park biulding 
becomes very much the same as when the work is undertaken on a 
piece of land possessing naturally good soil and covered with 
natural trees. 

On this thousand acre tract, which originally was a bleak 
waste of drifting, barren sand, may now be found groves of 
handsome trees, natives of many coimtries of both hemispheres, 
and of all the continents. Here one may see the Cedars of 
Lebanon and of Moimt Atlas as well as the Deodars of the 
Himalayas, the Araucarias of Chile, Brazil and Norfolk Island, 
also the large- flowering, handsomely foliaged Magnolia of our 
Southern States, the Ehns of New England, and the Sequoia, 
Cypresses, Pines, etc., of our own State. In addition may be 
foimd the Yews of Old England and the fragrant, feathery 
Acacias of Australia, together with groves of Bamboos, masses 
of gaily-flowered Camellias and Rhododendrons and statety 
Rubber trees, while hundreds of other varieties of trees and 
shrubs are to be seen, natives of many climes, all of them ap- 
parently happy and healthy in their new surroundings. 


Alblzzia Julibrissin in Flower. 




N European countries and the Eastern States of 
America many works on gardening have been 
written in calendar form, such a calendar being 
very convenient for reference or as a guide for 
systematic work throughout the year. 
Of course, no calendarial directions can be, at the same time, 
suitable to all the different localities or districts of our great 
State. It may be pouring rain and cold weather in Humboldt 
county and on the same day very dry and quite warm in the 
counties south of Tehachapi; we have cold frosty nights in 
Shasta coimty when the oranges are ripening in the county 
adjoining. While it would be impossible to provide for every 
contingency, yet, along the coast and in the great valleys, the 
difference in temperature is not so wide but that a general system 
of operation might apply to all. The seasons themselves, how- 
ever, vary so much that many circumstances must be taken into 
consideration, such as the state of the weather, the condition of 
the soil, etc. In some years, the Winter rains fall much earlier 
than in others; one season may have rainfall enough to allow 
plowing and spading to be commenced early in September, while, 
in other years, the groimd may remain dry and hard imtil late in 

Keeping all this in view, there are submitted in this chapter, 
in the form of a Gardening Calendar, a series of hints and sug- 
gestions based on the experience of the writer, which, it is be- 
lieved, will be foimd useful and profitable to growers in CaU- 
fomia, it being left to the good judgment of such to make the 



necessary modifications when a season has been abnormal or if 
their locations should happen to be where the temperature goes 
to an extreme in any way. 


If it has not already been done, have all the necessary prun- 
ing of fruit trees (including apples, pears, apricots, peaches, 
plums, etc.) attended to at once; also prune roses and other de- 
ciduous trees, climbers and shrubs, removing all decayed or 
weak growth. If any show signs of ill health, take up the plants 
and examine their roots: root-prune all unhealthy stock and 
replant in fresh, well-cultivated, deep, rich soil. After pruning, 
clear away all the clippings and any weeds which may be f oimd 
either in shrub-groups, flower-beds or walks. Weeds should 
never be allowed to get foothold in any well-kept garden. 

When the hedges have all been clipped and the place has 
been given a general clean-up, a clear dry day should be selected 
when the soil is in good condition, neither too dry nor yet so 
wet that it will stick to the spade; after giving the soil a good 
coat of at least three inches of old, well-rotted manure, spade 
the surface of all shrubbery-groups and flower-beds to the depth 
of at least one foot (except where the operation would interfere 
too much with the roots of the plants), leaving the soil in as 
rough and lumpy a condition as possible so as to allow the atmos- 
phere to penetrate the soil. 

Plant out all kinds of fruit trees and also all kinds of decidu- 
ous trees and shrubs, selecting a day when the air is soft and the 
soil in good condition, avoiding days when the wind blows cold 
and dry, or the soil is wet and soggy. 

In laying out new rose-beds, first trench the soil to the depth 
of two feet and mix the soil freely with, at least, six inches of 
half-decomposed horse-manure. The soil should be of a good 
strong nature, not too sandy but not a heavy clay; a good mel- 



low loam of any color, if well-enriched, suits the rose, a fairly 
well-sheltered situation being selected. 

January is a good month for laying out new groimd, making 
walks, etc. 

In the Greenhouse or glasshouse the principal work is keep- 
ing everything as bright and fresh as possible, allowing no dead 
or dying leaves or dirt of any kind to accumulate on any bench 
or pot or even imder the plant-benches or stages. It is advisable 
to syringe very little during this month, and only on bright, 
warm days and in the early morning. It will suffice to dampen 
the floors and plant-stages (or tables) once or twice a day; 
especially be careful not to syringe plants which are in bloom, 
else the display of flowers will be short. 

This being the coldest month of the year, and flowers scarce 
in the open, a good display of color should be aimed at, Roman 
Hyacinths, Begonias, Cinerarias, Euphorbias, Rondeletias, Pri- 
mulas, Poinsettias, etc., being utilized. We should keep the 
greenhouse gay and cheerful during the entire month. 

Keep the temperature between fifty-five and sixty-five de- 
grees Fahrenheit at night, allowing a rise of ten degrees in the 

Give larger pots to pot-bound palms or other evergreen, orna- 
mental-leaved plants which have healthy roots. Examine each 
individual plant, and, if the roots are not in a healthy condition, 
cut back the diseased roots to healthy tissue and repot the plant 
in a pot of the same size or even in a smaller one, using good, 
fresh soil composed of two thirds turfy-loam and one-third leaf- 
mold with enough sand to keep the whole open and free, to- 
gether with a sprinkling of bone-meal or crushed bones. 

Sow seeds of Lobelias, Pyrethrums, Celosias, Wigandias, and 
other bedding foliage-plants, placing them in sandy leaf-mold 
and giving them partial shade until germination. 




The old adage "as the day lengthens the cold strengthens" 
is just as true in California as it is in the East, and should be 
carefully remembered by all who grow, in the flower-garden, 
plants which are at all tender. Cinerarias, for instance, may be 
carried over a few cold nights by being covered with light cot- 
ton sheeting and will thus give grand resxilts in the early Spring, 
whereas, if not protected during cold nights, they will be a 
failure. The old favorite Spring-flowering Doronicum should 
now receive special attention and will be foimd useful in beds 
and borders. Plants which have been transplanted in the Fall 
or have been left imdisturbed from the previous season will give 
good results in the Spring, while those whose roots are divided 
at this season, will flower late in the Summer thus giving a longer 
season of flower. 

Ivies growing on walls should be trimmed in, fairly close 
to the wall or fence, as they quickly become covered with new 
leaves at this season. Rough walls have an attractive look if 
covered with Ivy, Virginia Creeper or Boston Ivy. Ivy is also 
useful for planting imder trees where grass and other plants die 
out, or for rambling over rocks, tree stumps or rooteries. 

In the flower-borders, the Iris reticulata and Iris major are, 
during this month, developing their deliciously fragrant flowers 
and deserve a little extra attention in the way of the groimd 
being kept clear of weeds, of being mulched with well-decom- 
posed manure, and, should the season be inclined to be dry, of 
being given a copious supply of water at the roots. The same 
instructions should be followed in the treatment of Hyacinths, 
Tulips, Anemones, Ranimculus, Daffodils and other Spring- 
flowering bulbs. 

Seeds of numerous species of annuals will have to be sown 
during the next few weeks. The hardy kinds may be sown in 
the open ground in sunny, sheltered situations, in well-prepared 



soil when the weather is fine and the soil is in a fairly dry con- 
dition. Salpiglossis, Phlox Drummondii and Zinnia, also 
Asters, Petunias, etc., should be sown, about this date, on a mild 
hotbed which has an even covering of finely-sifted soil two inches 
deep, thoroughly moistened before the seed is planted. The 
seeds should be thinly sown in rows and covered with finely- 
sifted soil to the depth of one-quarter of an inch; shade the soil 
luitil germination has taken place, care being taken that the yoimg 
seedlings are not allowed to flag or wilt or even to become dry. 
When the seedlings are large enough to be pricked off, they 
should be planted, three inches apart, in moderately rich soil in 
boxes (four inches deep) or singly in two and one-half inch pots. 

Insert cuttings of Altemantheras, Irisenes, Heliotropes, 
Petunias, etc., in pots or boxes filled with a mixture of one-half 
fiinely-sifted leaf-mold, one-quarter loam and one-quarter clean 
white sand, with a half-inch layer of sand on the surface; give 
water enough to settle the sand about the cuttings and plunge 
in a bottom heat of about seventy-five degrees Fahrenheit in 
greenhouse or hot frame, keeping them in a close atmosphere 
and shaded from simshine for about ten days and then gradually 
exposing them to light and air. Seedling Lobelias and Pyre- 
thrums, sown last month, should now be pricked out about two 
inches apart in light rich soil in pans or boxes. Place them in a 
close, warm atmosphere shading them imtil they re-root in their 
new soil when they may be gradually inured to air and light. 

Dahlias. If an increase of the number of plants is desired, 
old roots should now be put upon a bed having a mild bottom- 
heat, the tubers being covered up to the collar with light leaf- 
mold or other light sandy soil. Syringe them twice daily, and, 
as soon as the young shoots have made two or three joints in 
length, slip them off and place them singly in small pots filled 
with sand and leaf-mold, half and half, well-mixed together; 
then plimge them in a close, warm frame or greenhouse and, 
when they are rooted, gradually expose them to air and light. 



If the repotting of the general collection of plants recom-. 
mended last month is not finished, that work should be attended 
to as early this month as possible. As the days lengthen, more 
ventilation should be given, the ventilators being closed early 
in the afternoon and the temperature allowed to reach eighty- 
five or ninety degrees Fahrenheit by sunheat. Should green- 
fly, scale or other insects have appeared, boil one poimd of 
whale-oil soap in one gallon of rain water (or larger quantities 
in the same proportion) and use one-half pint of this mixture in 



Hollyhock seeds should be sown early in the month in order 
to get good flowering plants the first season. East Lothian 
Stocks, Lobelia cardinaUs, Verbenas, Celosias and also Pent- 
stemons and Antirrhinums should be sown early in this month. 
Begonia tubers, lifted in the Fall, should now be placed in boxes, 
on a thin layer of light soil and half-covered with the same kind 
of soil. Start them growing imder cool treatment and keep 
them in a cool frame imtil planting-out time. The stock of 
plants may be increased by dividing tubers which show many 
buds. The cut surfaces of these divisions should be sprinkled 
with sulphur-dust and allowed to dry before potting. 

Where flowers of Sweet-peas are desired early, seeds should be 
sown, in the first week of this month (in well-prepared, rich gar- 
den soil) about three-quarters of an inch deep, either in rows or 
in small circles. As soon as the young plants are about four 
inches high they should be given a trellis or other light support to 
climb over. 

Sow also in the open ground, as early in the month as the 
soil is in the proper condition, that is when the soil is moist but 
not too wet or sticky, Eschscholtzias, Lupins, Poppies, Corn- 
flower, Nemophilas and other hardy wildflowers and annuals. 


four gallons of rain water for syringing twice weekly; if mealy- 
bug is troublesome, add eight ounces of petroleum. When it is 
necessary to use the petroleiun mixture, it should be done about 
five or six o'clock in the evening on dull days only. By using 
this petroleum emulsion occasionally, much labor will be saved 
in checking the spread of mealy-bug and the leaves will become 

Ferns growing freely should be afforded abimdance of mois- 
ture at the roots, and a moist atmosphere must be maintained at 
all times, this being, for successful fern culture, an absolute neces- 
sity. Lygodium scandens, a chmbing fern suitable for covering 
walls, trellises, etc., requires frequent attention at this season. 
In order to display the plant effectively, each frond should be 
secured to a fine wire; the plants should be given abimdance of 
water at the roots and syringed frequently. Where it is desir- 
able to increase the number of plants, in the fern family, divide 
the old plants into sections, and pot them in suitable sizes, care 
being taken that the plants are put into the smallest sizes of pots 
in which they may be comfortably placed, in soil composed of 
one-third mellow loam, one-third leaf-mold and one-third peat 
with enough sand to keep the whole open for free passage of 
water. Place them in a shaded portion of the greenhouse, syring- 
ing morning and evening, keeping the temperature at sixty 
degrees Fahrenheit at night, allowing it to rise to seventy-five 
degrees Fahrenheit by day, and carefully preventing cold draughts 
of air from passing through the house. 

Hanging baskets should now receive a thorough over-hauling. 
If a basket requires replanting, line it first with moss and place 
about one inch of soil over this; place the plants in the basket 
and fill the basket with lumpy, fibrous loam and a little peat. 
Asparagus Sprengeri and Asparagus plumosus are excellent plants 
for growing in baskets as are also the Davallia ferns, the Boston 
fern and many of the Adiantums. Many of the small- flowering 
tuberous Begonias also make excellent subjects, especially where 



hung above the eye when their lovely flowers show to good 

Propagate by cuttings, Coleus, Pilea muscosa, Tradescantia, 
Ficus and Panicum; also propagate Begonia Rex from leaves 
and Isolepis by division. 

Caladiums and Alocacias, having rested during the Winter, 
may now be repotted. Shake the old soil from the tubers and pot 
them in small pots, allowing not more than a half-inch of soil 
between the tubers and the side of the pot. They should be 
placed in soil consisting of equal parts of fibrous loam, leaf-soil 
and peat, with enough silver-sand to keep the whole sweet and 
open. After potting, place them in a mild bottom heat of about 
seventy degrees Fahrenheit and a top temperature of about sixty 
degrees Fahrenheit at night, allowing a rise of about ten degrees 
in the daytime; water sparingly until growth has begun. When 
the plants have filled the pots with roots, change them to larger 
pots, taking care that an inch of fresh soil surrounds the ball of 
earth around the plants; this will necessitate a pot two sizes or 
inches wider than the one the plant formerly occupied. In repot- 
ting, use the same soil as reconmiended for the first potting, but, 
in addition, mix a little very old well-rotted half-dry cow or 
horse-manure with it as the Caladiums, like most other large- 
leaved, rapid-growing plants, love good rich feeding and plenty 
of water during the growing season. 

Gloxinias, Achimenes and Tydaeas may also be started and 
treated in much the same way recommended for the Caladiums; 
see that the pots are well supplied with drainage material by 
filling the pots at least one-quarter of their depth with crocks or 
broken bricks, placing one flat piece over the hole in the bottom 
of the pot and, above that, small pieces not over half an inch 
thick; cover this with moss to keep the soil from washing into 
the drainage material. 

Rearrange the plants from time to time as this will tend to 
keep them in better condition and more shapely in appearance; 



wash the pots, sponge the leaves, etc.; also wash the woodwork 
and give a general cleanup to the house; in short, neatness should 
be in evidence in the greenhouse. 


If wet weather or any other cause has rendered it impossible 
to carry out the directions given for last month, these should 
now be proceeded with. This is the best month for planting 
Eucalyptus, Acacias and other semi-tender trees and shrubs, as 
directed imder their respective headings. All vacant ground 
should be manured and spaded where required; weeds should be 
destroyed wherever found, and the ground stirred lightly with 
the hoe or rake in order to destroy nests of slugs and harmfxd 
insects. Ground which was roughly spaded last month shoidd 
now be hoed and raked when moderately dry. The borders of 
the shrubbery and other groimd, where flowers are to be planted 
or where seeds are to be sown, shoxdd be worked over, levelled 
and raked preparatory to planting and seeding. 

If they have not been already sown, plant seeds of Sweet- 
peas, Nemophilas and the other annuals recommended last 
month, sowing them in circular patches in small groups, or in 
beds or rows where plenty of space is available. Plant out 
young plants of Carnations, Phloxes, Violets, Pentstemons, 
Campanulas, Colimibines, Japanese Anemones and other hardy, 
perennial flowering-plants in well-prepared, fairly-rich soil. 
Plant out also Gladioli and other hardy bulbous roots (includ- 
ing Begonias and Caladiimi esculentum), mulching among the 
plants with a light sprinkling of well-rotted manure. 

This month is the most favorable for giving the Rockery a 
little overhauling in the way of arranging such plants as Sedimis 
and Mesembryanthemums. The especially strong-growing vari- 
eties will generally be foimd to have outgrown the space allowed 
them and should be dug out and replaced by small plants or 



cuttings, cuttings generally being preferred as it takes only a 
few weeks for them to root and to begin to bloom again. Cras- 
sulas, Cactus, Echeverias, Aloes, Auriculas, etc., should be ex- 
amined, and, where necessary, should receive a top dressing of 
rich light soil to encourage fresh growth; those having tall flower- 
stems should be neatly staked in order to support their heavy 
flower-heads in stormy weather. Arabis, Saxifraga and other 
Spring- flowering rock-plants should have the ground about them 
examined and the surface top-dressed, and, as soon as the bloom- 
ing season is over, their flower-stems cut off, while, when neces- 
sary, the plants should be severely cut back to encourage fresh, 
vigorous flowering-growth for the following season. 

When space is available, sow varieties of wildflowers. In 
any out of the way spot not used for any special purpose, have 
the ground spaded and sown with seeds of the different strong- 
growing species such as Lupinus bicolor, Collinsia bicolor, 
Eschscholtzia, etc., also Shirley and Iceland Poppies, Fox-gloves, 
the common sweet Mignonette, and Nasturtium both climbing 
and dwarf, not forgetting the free-spreading sweet Alyssum as 
it will continue flowering late in the Autumn when most of the 
others are past. 


Altemanthera, Iresine and all bedding plants should receive 
their final transplanting preparatory to hardening off. The 
small-growing dwarf species, such as Altemanthera, are better 
grown in boxes (the dimensions of which should be about fifteen 
inches in width, twenty-two inches in length and four inches in 
depth) and should be planted in light rich soil about two inches 
apart. Boxes of this size are also used in growing Asters, Stocks, 
Verbenas, Petunias and most of the low-growing annuals. 
Dahlias, Hollyhocks and all strong, tall-growing, flowering and 
ornamental plants do better if grown singly in pots. 

Sow, early in the month, seeds of Stocks, Asters, Coreopsis, 


Lawn and Driveway. 


Dianthus, Cosmos, Ipomoeas, Marigolds, Phlox Drummondii, 
etc., and, for succession, Lobelias, Zinnias, and Gaillardias. 

Continue the work recommended for last month in the green- 
house, keeping up a warm, moist atmosphere to encourage vigor- 
ous growth. As the flowering-plants, such as Azaleas, go out of 
bloom, pick off all the seed-pods and place the plants in a warm, 
moist atmosphere to induce them to make fresh growth, shading 
them during hot sunshine. Plants in need of repotting should 
be attended to as soon as they are fairly started into growth, using 
good fibrous peat, leaf-mold, a little broken charcoal and coarse 
silver-sand for the potting. Work the soil firmly and evenly 
roimd the old ball with a thin rammer, making it as firm as that of 
the old ball. Syringe the plants freely with soft water while they 
are making their growth; as growth progresses give them more 
air, and, when completed, place them in the open air in a cool 
shaded situation (avoiding cold draughts) and plunge the pots 
in ashes to about half their depth. 

Caladium plants which were started as advised a few weeks 
ago will now be ready for repotting in pots two sizes larger than 
those they occupy. The soil should be composed of one-third 
loam, one-third leaf-mold and one-third silver-sand with a 
sprinkling of pulverized cow-manure mixed with the soil. To 
encourage vigorous root action, warm humid air should be pro- 
vided; dose the ventilators early in the afternoon and conserve 
the sun-heat ; syringe the plants freely with soft tepid water and 
shade them during the bright sunshine. 

Repot Coleus, Begonias, etc., as their pots become filled with 

The majority of green house plants may be propagated during 
this month. As a general rule, those cuttings root most readily 
which are taken from plants that have formed half-ripe wood. 
In the case of Begonias or other soft-wooded plants, cuttings may 
be taken from any portion of the young shoots, provided a clean 
cut is made inmiediately below a joint and with a sharp knife. 




N)anphaea, Lotus or other water plants should be planted or 
replanted early in April before the young leaves have made much 

If the water cannot be run off the pond, it is a good plan to 
fill, with loam and old manure in equal proportions, the required 
number of wicker-baskets (boxes made of laths will answer for 
the same purpose), plant in each basket a few good crowns, cover- 
ing the surface with an inch of coarse sand or fine gravel, and 
then sink them in the desired positions in the water. For strong- 
growing varieties, such as the Nymphaea Marliacea, Nymphaea 
alba, Nymphaea chromatella, Nymphaea tuberosa and also the 
Lotus family, larger bodies of soil are required in order to have 
them at their best. 

In the case of ponds where the water can be run off, mounds 
of soil, held together by being surrounded with big round stones, 
should be made, the plants set out and the pond quickly filled. 

It should be remembered that a large niunber of crowns on a 
plant is not conducive to free-flowering. 

In addition to the Lilies themselves, attention should be given 
to the many beautiful plants which thrive in shallow water or on 
the banks bordering a pond, either partially submerged or 
in the adjacent moist soil. For partially submerged spots or 
shallow water the plume-like Papyrus antiquorum and the 
Cyperus or Umbrella plant, the Calla lily and all of the Rushes 
and Water-grasses are recommended, while the Pontederia 
cordata, the Sagitarias and the Aponogetons all add to the 
attractiveness of the pond or water-garden. Where occasional 
flowering takes place, many handsome plants may be grown, any 
of which can be planted now. These should include the gorgeous 
Japanese Iris, the Spiraea Aruncus, many of the Bamboos, 
Funkias, etc. 

A number of the bedding plants such as Fuchsias, Geraniums, 

[ 346 1 


the earlier Lobelias, Pyrethrums, etc., should now be placed out 
of doors in sheltered situations, and all other bedding plants, as 
soon as they are the required size, should be gradually hardened 
oflF, care being taken not to expose them suddenly from hot green- 
house or hot frame to the open air. It is advisable to keep them 
under glass for a week or ten days with the ventilators open both 
by day and by night, and, for the first few days after being placed 
out of doors, they should be shaded during bright sunshine by 
being covered with some Ught cheese-cloth or similar hght 

If not already done, Cannas and Phloxes should have their 
roots taken up and the crowns divided into bunches (two or 
three stems to each bunch) and planted at once in well-enriched, 
loamy soil; plant the Cannas about three feet apart and the 
Phloxes about eighteen inches apart. 

If the stock of Dahlias is short, cuttings may still be taken. 
Pot the cuttings singly in two-inch pots and plunge them into a 
little bottom heat where they will soon take root. These late 
stock cuttings make excellent late- flowering effects, continuing 
well into November. Shrubs which have been transplanted 
during the last few months should be closely examined, and, if the 
weather be inclined to the dry side, given a good soaking of water 
at the roots; then they should be well mulched with old manure. 
Spray them with water late in the afternoon of dry days to 
encourage the swelling of buds and the making of fresh growth. 

Roses will now be making good growth, and the buds should 
be thinned according to the strength of the variety. Keep the soil 
open by stirring it with the hoe, especially after rain or after 
watering artificially, as this prevents undue evaporation. Should 
the green fly attack the leaves, spray them with the mixture of 
whale-oil soap and tobacco- juice in the evening, and hose off the 
plants the following morning with clear water. Should one appli- 
cation not be effective, spray again the following evening, using 
the hose again next morning to wash off the soap. Even a third 



similar application may sometimes be necessary. Some use 
quassia-extract in place of the whale-oil soap with the tobacco, 
and apply it in similar way. One of the worst enemies of the 
Rose is the Rose-leaf Roller, for which the sprayer should also 
be used. In addition to this, examine the plants daily and squeeze 
the grubs between the finger and thirnib. Should mildew appear, 
apply flowers of sulphur. The best time to do this is in the early 
morning while the dew is on the leaves. 


Indian Azaleas which have finished blooming, should, as 
recommended last month, have their seed-pods removed and, if 
necessary, be given larger pots. This is a good time to put in 
cuttings of the Autumn favorite Chrysanthemiuns. Select 
strong, short-jointed, young wood. Insert the cuttings in sandy 
leaf-mold and place them in a cold frame, shading them for a 
few days during sunshine and giving them a slight sprinkling with 
the watering-pot in the evening before closing the sashes. As 
soon as the young plants are well rooted, pot them singly in 
two-inch pots using soil composed of two parts turfy-loam, 
one part sandy leaf-mold and one part old, well-decomposed 
horse-manure, with a little bone-meal. Be careful that all the 
ingredients are well-mixed together and see that proper drainage 
is afforded. Pot the plants firmly and return the plants to the 
cold frame; keep them close for a few days and syringe them 
lightly overhead at least once a day. Should the green fly 
appear, dip the heads of the plants in softsoap and water. 

Begonia Gloire de Lorraine and other fibrous-rooted Begonias 
will now require attention. Having washed clean a suflicient 
number of thumb-pots and attended to the drainage, fill each 
pot loosely with sandy leaf-soil to the rim; make a hole in the 
middle, insert a cutting and fill the hole with silver-sand, making 
the soil firm about the cutting; plunge them in a place where 



they will get a little bottom heat, say about eighty degrees 
Fahrenheit, standing them closely together. Each cutting being 
struck singly in a pot, it is not necessary to disturb the roots at 
next potting. 

Sow seeds of Primula sinensis in well-drained, shallow pans 
filled with soil composed of light loam, leaf-mold and silver- 
sand mixed in equal parts and sifted through a sieve with a half- 
inch mesh. Having made the soil firm and level, sow the seeds 
evenly and press them into the soil with a piece of smooth dry 
wood; cover the seeds lightly with fine particles of sandy leaf- 
mold; water with a fine rose and cover the pans with a piece 
of glass on which place a thin layer of moss. Keep the moss 
damp until the seeds germinate; place the plants in a temper- 
ature of about sixty degrees Fahrenheit; shade them during 
the sunshine and see that the soil does not become dry. Gradu- 
ally inure the young plants to light and air, and, when they make 
four leaves, transplant them into shallow pans, an inch or two 
apart, using the same soil as recommended for the seed. 

It is now also the time of year to put in cuttings of Coleus, 
Acalyphas and other soft-wooded plants. See that the young 
plants of this class are not allowed to get pot-bound. Acalyphas 
especially should be given plenty of pot-room as they require 
good cultivation. 

In potting young plants use rich loam, half-decayed leaf- 
soil and sand, with a good sprinkling of old manure and a little 
bone-meal; keep the foliage clean by sponging the leaves, as 
overhead watering is liable to cause the racemes to decay; grow 
the plants in a warm, moist atmosphere. 


Sow seeds of Cowslips and hardy Prinuroses early in the 
month, either in a cool, shady border or in boxes in a cold frame 
where they should be kept shaded from sunshine until germin- 



ation. Seedlings, well-grown, generally give better results than 
those propagated by division of the roots. As soon as the young 
plants are large enough to be handled, prick them out in a shady, 
well-sheltered border in a Ught soil, giving them plenty of water; 
plant them in their permanent quarters in September or October 
where they will give fine eflfects during the following Spring. 

Annuals, the seeds of which were sown some weeks ago in 
the flower-border and other vacant spaces, should now receive 
attention in the way of thinning, in order that they may not 
become crowded. Before thinning, give the groimd a good 
soaking with water so that the roots may be the more easily 
drawn from the soil. Should there be any danger of loss from 
slugs or other insects, it would be safer to defer the final thinning 
until the young plants are at least three inches high. It is well 
however to err on the side of excessive thinning, as crowded 
annuals always look poor and insignificant and bloom for only 
a short time. After thinning, mulch lightly with old manure 
about half an inch deep. 

A further sowing of any subject which will come into flower 
late in the Autumn is now in order. This might include Sweet- 
peas, Poppies, Corn-flowers, etc. 

Border Carnations should have their flower-stems tied loosely 
to neat stakes painted brown or green, and the soil of the beds 
should be hoed after each watering, never being allowed to crack 
or become baked. 

Bedding-out of all the tenderer species such as Alteman- 
thera, Coleus, Cock's-comb, Iresine, etc., should be finished this 
month, cloudy days or the later hours of the afternoon or eve- 
ning being selected for the work. 

Should the planting of the hardier subjects, such as Pentste- 
mons. Antirrhinums, Gaillardias, Dahhas, Lobelia cardinalis, 
etc., have been delayed, they must be planted out as early this 
month as possible; select favorable weather, avoiding cold days 
or days on which the wind is strong or the sun very hot. Plant 



them in the evening and give them a thorough watering imme- 
diately. It is necessary to give the soil a good watering a few 
hours before starting to plant, and on no account plant out young 
bedding stock when the soil is at all dry even if it be so only on 
the surface. 


Begonias, started some weeks ago, will now require larger 
pots; allow two sizes larger where the plants are in vigorous 
growth; pot in soil composed of loam, leaf -mold and sharp 
sand, with a sprinkling of bone-meal or old cow-manure mixed 
through it for the tuberous section; for the fibrous division 
of the family, add a little peat to the mixture. 

Give additional pot-room, as required, to all soft-wooded or 
fine-foliaged plants; also tie, prune or stake as required to keep 
the plants in good shape. 

Prick off seedlings of Primula sinensis. Cinerarias and Cal- 
ceolarias in pans or small boxes, planting them in soil composed 
of leaf-mold and silver-sand with a little fibrous-loam added. 
Place the plants in a close frame and shade them during the hot 
sxmshine, avoiding cold draughts of dry air. 

The tubers of the handsome, Winter-blooming Gesneria 
should now be started. Place five or six tubers in a six-inch pot, 
in soil composed of two-thirds fibrous loam and one-third peat, 
with a Uttle leaf-mold and sand to keep the soil open. Cover 
the tubers to the depth of half an inch; place them in the warm- 
est comer of the greenhouse and give them water as required at 
the roots but avoid sprinkling the leaves as that will spot them. 


Neatness and cleanliness should always be evident in the 
flower-borders, spent flowers, faded leaves and weeds being 
removed at least once a week and the surface of the soil stirred 
frequently with the push-hoe or hand-fork. 



Continue to stake and neatly tie in Carnations and all plants 
requiring support, doing this before the stems begin to fall or 
bend over. Vacant spaces, rendered so by the passing of the 
late-Spring flowers, may be planted after being fertilized and 
spaded, Dahlias, Salvias, Chrysanthemums, etc., being utilized 
for late-Fall flowering. 

Dahlias, of course, all require stakes which should be set 
before the work of planting proceeds, and the shoots ought to 
be fastened loosely to the stakes so that they may not be broken 
by the wind. 

Roses should have all spent flowers removed, partly for 
appearance's sake and partly as a relief to the plants. After the 
first crop of flowers is past, sprinkle a Uttle bone-meal or other 
artificial fertilizer around the plants and stir the surface of the 
soil, leaving it a little rough so that when water is applied, which 
should be done immediately, the water will wash the fertilizer 
rootward. A few hours later, or as soon as the soil will work 
freely, dress the surface neatly with the rake. 

Climbing roses, especially the strong-growing, free- flowering 
varieties, should have the young shoots secured to the wires or the 
trelhses. If their roots are in soil which is light and dry, abun- 
dance of water should be given and immediately followed by 
a Ught mulching. 

Attend at this time of the year to the regulating and thinning 
of climbing plants generally; where they are crowded, thin them 
out, and, where plants have not filled their allotted space, some 
shoots should be laid in for the purpose. 


Chrysanthemums should now be in condition to be trans- 
planted into their flowering pots, the exact date for potting 
being however of not so much importance as the condition 
and quantity of roots in the pot. Unless the roots show a net- 



work around the ball, repotting should be deferred until this 
condition prevails. When giving them their final potting, use 
soil composed of any good, strong, turfy-loam mixed freely with 
old horse-manure and a little sand. As Chrysanthemiuns require 
a large amount of water, the drainage of the pots should be 
ample and carefully placed so as to prevent waterlogging. After 
potting, place them thickly together on a cindered or ash-covered 
surface in a sheltered position, out of doors. 

The dryness of the air at this season will necessitate the con- 
stant damping of the paths and stages of the greenhouse. Open 
all ventilators early in the morning, closing them again early 
in the evening; syringe ferns and all smooth-leaved and orna- 
mental-leaved plants not showing flower, with tepid water, but 
carefully avoid syringing with cold water or water with a tem- 
perature lower than the air of the greenhouse at the time of 
syringing. Plants, showing flower-trusses, should occasionally 
receive weak manure-water or a top-dressing of some artificial 

Sow seeds of Calceolaria, for succession, in shallow pots or 
pans, carefully drained and containing soil (consisting of loam, 
leaf-mold and silver-sand in equal parts) which has been passed 
through a half-inch meshed sieve. The soil should be pressed 
firm and watered a few hours before putting in the seeds which 
should be sown evenly. Barely cover the seeds with a light 
sprinkling of silver-sand; place them in a cold frame or hand 
glass, facing the North; keep them closely shaded until they 
germinate when air may be admitted gradually; sprinkle them 
overhead morning and evening. 

Put in cuttings of Coleus for the Winter decorations and 
repot Cinerarias, Begonias, and other soft-wooded plants as 




Gladioli are now much benefited by a dressing of old stable- 
manure, followed by copious applications of water. When 
nourished in this manner, the plants will grow to a large size 
and give fine spikes of large, deep-colored flowers. 

Dahlias also should receive plenty of water, and, when in 
heavy bloom, they will be greatly benefited by a generous supply 
of liquid manure twice a week; no plant repays generous treat- 
ment and good cultivation better than the Dahlia. Thin 
out weak shoots and attend to the staking and tying in of the 
shoots; also thin in the flower-buds and cut off all spent 

Early-flowering varieties of Chrysanthemums should now be 
making rapid growth. If weak shoots appear they should be 
removed at once; see that they are well attended to in the way 
of watering and repotting, for if the plants are allowed to suffer 
from lack of pot-room or of sufficient moisture, the result will be 
weak stems and small flowers. Attend to the staking and tying 
of the plants in order to guard against injury from strong winds. 

Deciduous shrubs, such as . Weigelas, Deutzias, Mock Orange, 
etc., should have the shoots, which have flowered this season, 
cut back to the stronger young shoots, and all weak shoots 
removed entirely. Care should be taken that they receive plenty 
of water at the root during the growing season. 

Seeds of Mignonette may now be sown, selecting if possible 
a cool situation facing the North. After sowing, shade the soil 
with some Ught material, such as a thin layer of straw, to keep 
the soil from baking until germination. Sow also seeds of Pan- 
sies. Hollyhocks, Canterbury Bells, Intermediate Stocks, Wall- 
flowers, Anemone coronaria, Carnations and other early Spring- 
flowering plants. By sowing seeds this month, one can count on 
having strong plants ready to take the place of those which 
finish blooming in October, and the plants which begin to show 



bloom in early Winter will keep the flower-beds bright with color 
until late in the Spring. 

Put in the last of the Poinsettia cuttings for the year as 
early in the month as practicable, care being taken that the 
young plants do not suffer from want of water, as few plants 
show the effects of the lack of it more quickly than the Poinsettia. 
As it is generally desired that the largest plants possible be grown 
in small pots, a rich soil should be used in potting. A compost 
consisting of good turfy-loam, good peat or leaf-mold, and 
silver-sand, with a sprinkling of bone-meal will be found suitable. 
In potting, the size of the future pot should be borne in mind as 
really fine plants may be grown in six or seven-inch pots; so, 
in the first potting, three-and-a-half-inch pots will be found 
large enough. When the cuttings are first potted, return them 
to the cutting bed and keep them shaded closely for a few days, 
syringing with tepid water several times daily xmtil they form 
fresh roots when they can be gradually exposed to the sunlight. 
This treatment will cause the leaves to be retained almost down 
to the soil. In the Southern portions of our State, where this 
plant gives such splendid results in the open air, the young plants 
may be set out in their permanent quarters about the beginning 
of the present month, a srnmy, sheltered situation and a fairly- 
rich, Ught soil being selected. 

Transfer seedling Cinerarias and Primulas to three-inch or 
four-inch pots, selecting soil of equal parts loam and leaf-mold 
with a little sand for the potting material. 

Palms should now be in full growth. They should be copiously 
syringed night and morning and have weak manure-water 
applied to the roots at least once a week. Should any scale or 
other insects appear, give a thorough cleansing with soap-suds or 
other insecticide (using a sponge or soft rag when washing), 
going over the leaves two or even three times until they are 
perfectly clean. 

At this dry season. Ferns should be given a plentiful supply 



of water ; the air of the house should be maintained as cool and 
moist as possible by keeping the floors and benches constantly 
wet. Keep the plants shaded at least eight hours of the day. 

Continue to propagate Acalyphas and Coleus for Fall and 
Winter decoration. 


Cuttings of any favorite variety of Roses may now be put in; 
select, for this purpose, half -ripe wood or short- join ted wood 
which has perfected its flowers. The cuttings should be taken 
off with a heel or cut just below a joint. Pieces of stems about 
four inches in length will be found sufficiently long for cuttings. 
Insert them in a shady, sheltered comer in sandy soil and let 
them remain there imtil growth commences, or, better still, insert 
them singly in small pots in a glass frame and plunge the pots in 
cool ashes, shading them for a few hours in the middle of the 
day. They should occasionally be sprinkled overhead with 
water and the frame should be kept moderately close. Frequent 
attention must be given in order to maintain the flower-garden 
in good and attractive condition; all spent blossoms should be 

All annuals whose flowering season is over should be taken 
up, the soil manured and the spaces planted with late-flowering 
plants. Attend closely to the cultivation and irrigation of all 
Autumn-flowering plants, such as Dahlias, Cannas, Chrysan- 
themums, etc., giving copious supplies of water at the roots and 
also giving manure- water as required; stir the soil frequently 
and rake off all weeds. 

Keep the ground about Violets well-cultivated and watered, 
removing all side shoots and runners. A light mulch of half- 
rotted manure will benefit them greatly during this season. 

Begonias, both the fibrous-rooted and also the bulbous sec- 
tions will now be in bloom. Be careful that they do not suffer 



from want of water at the roots and also overhead, for they 
should be sprinkled from above in the evening. A mulching of 
very old cow-manure will be foimd beneficial and will greatly 
assist in prolonging their season of bloom. 

Sow seeds of Anemone coronaria, mixing the seeds with fine 
sand before sowing; when the seedlings are two inches high, set 
them out in rows in a shady, cool, sheltered situation. 

Also put in seeds of Silene pendula and Forget-me-not for 
early-Spring flowering. These too should have a cool, sheltered 
spot, being transplanted a few inches apart when ready; plant 
them out, where it is desired that they flower, early in November. 

Rocheas, as they are now classed, are very showy subjects, 
especially the scarlet-flowered species (Rochea coccinea) which 
blooms so freely all through July, August and September. When 
it is desired to increase the stock of these, cuttings should be 
inserted. They should be placed in three-inch or four-inch pots 
filled with sand and old lime-mortar or brokeu brick, mixed with 
a little loam. They shoxild occupy a cool position facing the 
North where they will be found to readily take root. This 
free-flowering succulent should be seen more commonly as it 
grows and blooms freely with little care and requires no artificial 


The Alocacias and other ornamental, foliaged plants should 
be examined from time to time for red spider. Begonia mite 
and other insect pests. Should any of these appear, the leaves 
should be sponged with some insecticide. It should be borne 
in mind that only the injury caused by the mite and not the mite 
itself is visible to the naked eye. 

Streptocarpus. Keep all plants near the glass, affording 
them shade in the middle of the day, and syringing them daily, 
morning and evening. When necessary, change them into larger 
pots, potting them in a compost of loam, leaf-mold and dry cow- 



manure taken from an open pasture. Good drainage should be 
afforded and they should be kept in a temperature of seventy 
degrees Fahrenheit by night and in a moist atmosphere until 
showing flower, when they should be allowed a dry atmosphere. 

Chrysanthemums, Be on the watch for black aphides and 
green fly, and if any are discovered dust the leaves with tobacco- 
powder in the early morning when the foliage is damp. 

Make all growths secure by staking each stem to light stakes 
so as to prevent swaying by the wind. If the pots are full of 
roots, give light dressing of manure about the roots, or water 
with liquid-manure about twice a week. 


Trees and shrubs which show signs of flagging should receive 
attention and be given water at the roots otherwise they may 
be greatly injured, especially if the weather should continue 
hot as it often does during the greater part of this month. 

Spanish and German Irises, having ripened their bulbs, may 
now be taken up. The groimd in which they are to be replanted 
should be dug deeply and well-fertilized with old rotted manure. 
The bulbs should be set out early in November; in the meantime 
have them sorted and placed in boxes in a cool dry place. 

Propagate cuttings of all bedding plants as early in the 
month as practicable so that they may be well established before 
wet weather and dark days arrive. 

Tuberous-rooted Begonias should now be at their best; 
encourage them to prolong their flowering season by giving them 
copious waterings and by giving the beds a light mulch of some 
suitable material such as very old stable-manure or leaf-mold. 

Beds of Asters and other annuals which have ceased to bloom 
should be cleared of all old plants; if it is intended to fill the 
beds for Winter and Spring flowering, have the ground spaded 
over and apply a good dressing of soot. If the beds were man- 



ured in Spring, no manure will now be required. Plant the beds 
with Wallflowers, Myosotis, Silene, Pansies, Aubrietias, Viola 
comuta, etc., planting them as soon as convenient so that they 
may get well-established before cold weather sets in. If planted 
early, they should begin blooming early in December and give 
abundance of flower all through the Winter and early Spring. 


Poinsettias should be fully exposed to the sunshine from the 
present time on in order to mature and firm the growth. 

Let the last batch of rooted plants be placed in their flower- 
ing-pots, which need not be larger than six-inch and the smaller 
plants will do better if given four-inch pots. 

Roman Hyacinths, Paper white and Double Narcissus. Pot 
about five bulbs in a six-inch pot filled with a good rich compost, 
and plunge the pot in ashes for a few weeks, covering the pot 
with sand or ashes to the depth of six inches, leaving it thus 
until the bulbs fill the pot with their young roots. A situation 
facing North is most suitable for the plunging bed. When the 
pots are filled with roots, they may be brought into the green- 
house and gradually exposed to the light. Pot successive lots 
of bulbs so as to maintain a continuous supply of flowers from 
early in November until February when they begin blooming 
out of doors. 

Large-flowering Hyacinths. As soon as the bulbs arrive, 
have them unpacked at once and placed in a cool place imtil they 
can be potted. The most important point in Hyacinth growing 
is in the preparation of the soil which shoxild be composed of 
good yellow loam, old dry cow-manure rubbed through a half- 
inch sieve, some coarse leaf-mold, and enough sand to keep it 
open. This compost should be well-mixed together by being 
turned over several times, and should be left to mellow at least 
one month before being used. For single bulbs of Hyacinths, 



use a pot having a diameter of five inches. Crock the pot by 
placing one flat piece of crock over the hole in the bottom of the 
pot; over this place two inches of potsherds broken into small 
pieces, and, to keep the soil from choking the drainage, above 
these place a thin layer of moss; then fill the pot loosely with 
the soil, making a hole with the hand for the reception of the 
bulb and placing a handful of sand in the cavity; on this place 
the bulb ; press down the bulb and soil together and make the soil 
firm with the fingers, leaving the crown of the bulb a little above 
the soil. Give a good watering and place out of doors on a bed 
of ashes on a site with a Northern exposure and cover to the depth 
of six inches as previously advised for Roman Hyacinths. Here 
they should remain for about six weeks when they should be 
examined, and, when the pots are well-filled with roots, they may 
be removed to a cool place in the greenhouse and gradually 
exposed to light and air or to warmer quarters if desired to 
flower early. 

Hyacinths, to flower in glasses, should be solely of the single- 
flowering varieties, and only good-sized firm bulbs should be 
selected. Nearly fill the glasses with soft water (rain water 
preferred); in the water place a few small pieces of charcoal; 
place the bulbs in the glasses so that the bases barely touch the 
water and place the glasses in a cool, dark situation imtil the roots 
nearly fill the glasses, when they may be placed in the greenhouse 
and gradually exposed to light but free from cold draughts. 
When it is desirable to transfer, to glasses. Hyacinths which 
have been grown in pots, their roots may be freed from soil by 
carefully dipping the ball in water and washing the roots, after 
which they may be placed in the Hyacinth glasses. A fresh 
batch of bulbs should be potted at intervals of three weeks imtil 
November, after which the bulbs seem to deteriorate. 

When desired. Tulips, Scillas, Crocuses, etc., may be grown. 
The soil and treatment recommended for Hyacinths will be 
suitable for them also. 


Summer Houie. SUndard Roses on Border of Path. 



Pinks and Carnations. Cuttings and layers which were put 
in in July should now be well-rooted and ready to be planted in 
their permanent quarters. Examine the soil, and, if it looks the 
least sour or sticky, have it dug and left rough, giving it no water 
for at least two weeks; this treatment will greatly assist in 
sweetening the soil. After the soil has been well dried and aired, 
give it a good watering and again turn it over with the spade; 
level it, and, after raking it, mark the ground and plant the yoimg 
plants, setting them out about eight inches apart. Do not allow 
the roots to become at all dry before they are planted. After 
planting, give a good watering with the watering-pot to settle the 
soil about the roots, afterwards giving a light sprinkle to the 
leaves. A light spraying every evening for a week after planting 
will greatly benefit the young plants. 

Dahlias should still afford a good show of flowers. See that 
they are all correctly labeled before the blooming season is over; 
remove all spent flowers and decaying leaves, and give copious 
suppUes of light Uquid-manure during dry weather. 

Chrysanthemums will now be showing bloom. Give them 
also a generous supply of water at their roots and apply liquid- 
manure once a week. When large flowers are desired, thin out 
the flower-buds to one bud to each stalk and see that the stems 
are well-secured by being tied to light stakes to prevent them 
being blown about by the Autunm winds. 

Fibrous-rooted Begonias, which have been occupying space in 
the flower-garden during the Simtuner, may now, if thought 
desirable, be taken up, potted and taken to the greenhouse where 
they will continue to flower most of the Winter. It is well to 
shade the plants for a week or ten days, after placing them in- 
doors, until they form new roots. 

Anemones may be planted during the present month; plant 



them six inches apart. One-half inch of soil should cover the 
crowns, and any good friable garden soil grows them well. 

Plant Cowslips, hardy Primroses, Cinerarias, Pansies and 
other early Spring-flowering plants in their permanent quarters. 


Cinerarias. The more forward plants should now be put 
into three-inch pots in a compost of loam, two-thirds leaf-soil and 
one-third dry cow-manure from an open pasture, with a little 
sand and a sprinkling of bone-meal added. Let them stand 
on a bed of ashes in a protected spot facing North. 

Calceolarias. Pot off the young plants of Calceolarias in 
two-inch pots and treat as recommended for Cinerarias. 

Primulas. The early plants will soon begin to show their 
flower-spikes. If the pots are full of roots, give them a little 
weak liquid-manure occasionally. Later plants, now in three- 
inch pots, should be transferred to others, five inches in diameter, 
if they are already well-rooted. This treatment will be suitable 
for not only Primula sinensis but also Primula stellata (a type 
which should be more conimonly seen) and Primula obconica; 
if well done, this will enable them to continue in bloom through- 
out the Winter. 

Caladiums. Where the more delicate varieties are grown, 
great care should be given them at this season. Many tubers are 
lost every year by being dried too rapidly. As soon as the leaves 
show signs of dying off, the plants should be placed in a position 
where they may receive the full light and be watered carefully; 
reduce the quantity of water as the foliage decays, and discon- 
tinue it altogether when the foliage is all dry. When the tubers 
are ripe, allow the soil in the pots to become perfectly dry. 
The pots may be laid on their sides under the plant-stage or in 
any dry place where the temperature does not fall below fifty 
degrees Fahrenheit; they may remain there imtil wanted in early 




Ferns, which have been growing in a close and moist atmos- 
phere, should now be allowed more light and air, as soon as their 
growth is completed, in order to harden their fronds, as in this 
condition they are better prepared to withstand the cloudy days 
which may be expected during the next three months. 


Keep the lawn well-rolled and smoothly cut, removing all 
faUen leaves. These can be much more easily swept up when 
the grass is smooth and short than when it is otherwise. The 
walks should be kept weU rolled and their edgings neatly cut. 
When walks, edgings and lawns are neatly kept, the garden 
always looks well even though flowers and color may be scarce. 

Examine Lily bulbs carefully as soon as their leaves have 
fallen and their stems are dead, to see if they are attacked by 
wire-worms. Should cut, wire or other worms be found at work 
in the bulbs, take the bulbs up at once and dip them in water 
strongly diluted with soot, and, as soon as the bulbs have been 
cleared of the pest, plant them, in a different part of the garden, 
in fresh soil in which no worms or other vermin are to be found. 
The soil should be rich and soft with no rocks or hard clay in its 
composition. Plant so that the top of the bulb will be two or 
three inches under the soil. 

Tuberous Begonias, which have ceased to grow or flower, 
should have their stems cleared of all decaying leaves, and their 
tubers lifted and shaken clear of soil; place them in boxes half- 
filled with sandy leaf-mold, and store in a cool dry place where 
they may be kept imtil required for replanting in the Spring. 

Dahlias also, as soon as their tops are ripe and their flowering 
ceases, should have their stems cut down to within a foot of the 
ground and their roots lifted and freed from all soil. After 
attaching labels to each, place them in a cool, dry shed for a few 
weeks and then store them away for the Winter. 



Montbretias, where they have got matted too thickly, should 
be taken up and the best bulbs selected and replanted m other 
quarters, or, if in the same ground, after the soil has been dug 
over two feet deep and enriched by a heavy layer of manure well- 
mixed through the soil. 

Other hardy bulbs, such as Iris Kaempferi, and Iris Ger- 
manica as well as the Spanish and English varieties, should be 
closely examined, and, if the bulbs are at all crowded, taken up. 
Have the ground spaded and enriched by a heavy coating of 
manure and then replant the plants. Most of the Iris prefer a 
moist situation and a rich soil. 

Lobelia cardinalis. Cut down old flower-stems and divide 
the crowns; replant them, where they are desired to bloom, in 
good rich loam. This same treatment may be given to the her- 
baceous plants such as perennial Phlox, Doronicums, Delphi- 
niums, Kniphofias, etc. Vacant spaces may still be planted with 
Tulips, Hyacinths, Daffodils and other Spring- flowering bulbs, 
planting as recommended m a former month. 

Myosotis should be planted freely in any dry bank as soon 
as the rains have sufficiently moistened the soil. 

Primroses and Cowslips (if this has not already been done) 
should have the crowns divided and replanted singly about six 
inches apart after the soil has been cultivated and enriched. 

Canterbury Bells may be set out in suitably prepared spots. 
These plants look exceedingly well in clumps or groups. Plant 
them about eighteen inches apart and not too deep. 

When it is desirable to plant evergreen shrubs or trees, No- 
vember is one of the best months for doing the work. Camel- 
lias, Rhododendrons, Magnolias, Laurels, Pittosporums and 
other hardy evergreens move well at this season. See that the 
soil is in good condition, neither too wet so that it becomes sticky 
with working, nor so dry that it does not break softly. It should 
be moist, without being wet or soggy, so that it will rest kindly 
among the fine fibrous roots. Working the soil among the roots 



with the fingers is still the best way to manage this very import- 
ant part of transplanting either flowering plants or shrubs. 


Palms and other smooth-leaved evergreens, such as Cro- 
tons, Marantas, Cycas, etc., which may be infested with scale, 
should be carefully sponged and cleaned, using a little soap and 
plenty of clean tepid water. Keep Cyclamen plants near the 
roof-glass. Should any of the plants require repotting, pot them 
in a compost of three parts good friable loam and one part leaf- 
mold with enough silver-sand to keep the soil free and open. 
Should the foliage be attacked by Mites, which will be shown 
first by the rusty appearance of the foliage, dip the leaves in a 
strong solution of tobacco-water, two or three times, at intervals 
of two days. Keep at a temperature of about fifty degrees 

Calceolarias. In order to have healthy, strong plants, careful 
attention must be paid to their roots; repotting at the proper 
time is very essential. Should the operation be delayed too long 
the plants become stunted and rarely recover from the neglect. 
They should be moved just as soon as the roots have well-occu- 
pied the soil. Keep the plants in a cool half-shaded position 
away from fire-heat and dry air. While giving them plenty of 
ventilation, no cold draughts should be allowed to reach their 
foliage. Should green fly attack the leaves, fumigate at once, 
and, if necessary, two evenings in succession, until all trace of the 
aphides disappears. 


When Lawns or grass edges have become uneven or in bad 
condition or partially worn, this will be foimd a good month to 
relay the sod. Low spots should have the sod raised. This is 
done by taking up the sod and leveling up with good rich soil, 



then relaying the sod and afterwards rolling or tamping it with 
the back of the spade until the whole is level and even. 

Where grass edgings are worn, the sod should be taken up 
(being cut in squares of about one foot) and placed on the oppo- 
site side of the walk. After giving the ground a good coating of 
old manure, spade to the depth of twelve inches, breaking up the 
soil as fine as possible with the spade. Level and rake the ground 
into shape and relay the sod, putting each square into place as 
neatly as possible. Give a light sprinkling of sifted soil and a 
good soaking of water; the following day, tamp level with the 
back of the spade, making the whole solid and hard. After 
edging into line it should look as well as an old estabhshed lawn. 

Where new groimds are to be laid out and much planting to be 
done, December is one of the best months for the carrying for- 
ward of this work, also for the planting of most of our hardy trees 
and shrubs. 

Plant deciduous trees and shrubs, also Cypress, Pine, Laurel, 
Euonymus, Box and all hardy evergreens, leaving Eucalyptus, 
Pittosporum and most of the Australian groups until March. 

The pruning of Roses should be attended to this month; cut 
out, first, all weak or sickly growths and cut back all unripe soft 
shoots to firm, mature wood. 

Climbers should have their shoots thinned out where they are 
at all matted; cut out all hard, weak wood which does not pro- 
duce strong, young shoots. After pruning, tie all straggUng 
shoots into place, and mulch with good manure about the roots 
of all Roses whether grown as standards, on trellises or in beds, 
leaving the mulching to be washed in by the Winter rains. Plant 
Roses in ground well trenched and manured. 


Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. Propagate this plant by means 
of the leaves; remove the leaves, with a sharp knife, close down 



to the base of the leaf-stems, and place them in shallow pans 
filled with clean sharp sand or light sandy leaf-mold, selecting 
strong leaves for cuttings. 

Climbers should be freed from superfluous shoots, all growths 
too weak to produce flowers being removed and the strong shoots 

If any scale or other insects be found among the leaves or 
stems, the plants should be taken from the trellises and thor- 
oughly cleaned. 

See that Poinsettias and other flowering-plants are carefully 
watered at the roots and their flowers and bracts kept away from 
drip and damp. 

Keep all paths clean and give air freely during warm weather, 
opening the ventilators in the early part of the day and shutting 
them up again as soon as the temperature begins to fall in the 
afternoon. See that the foliage of all plants is kept clean and 
free from insects. 





Aaron's Beasd (Saxifraga sarmen- 
tosa) 274 

Abelia 26,60 

floribunda 60 

rupestris ...... 30,33,60 

serrata 60 

triflora 60 

Abies (Fir) 30i 33, 63 

amabilis 63 

balsamea 60, 63 

bracteata 63 

cephalonica 63 

concolor 63 

Douglasii 63 

grandis 63 

magnifica . . - 63 

Mertensiana 61,63 

Morinda 60, 63 

nobilis 63 

Nordmannia 30, 63 

Pattoniana 63 

pectinata 63 

Abutilon (Bell-flower) .... 64 

admiration 64 

Boule de Niege 64 

fire king 64 

purpurea 64 

Acacia 13,23,26,30,48,64,326,341 

armata 23,33,65 

Baileyana 65 

calamifolia • . 65 

cultriformis 22,65 

dealbata 21,22,65 

decurrens 65 

floribunda 33*65 

fragrans 23 

latifolia. . . . 23,26,28,30,33 

lineata 65 

longifolia .... 30,64,65,325 

lophantha 65 

melanoxylon .... 20, 26, 65 


. . 21,22,24,26,28,30,33,64,65 

AcAaA — Continued 

pycnantha 65 

Riceana 65 

ACALYPHA 349,358 

Acanthus 225 

mollis latifolius 225 

niger 225 

spinosus 225 

Acer (Maple) 66 

campestre (English Maple) 33, 66 

circinatum 66 

Japonicum (Japanese Maple) . 66 

macrophyllum 66 

negundo . - . . . . . . 66 

palmatum 66,67 

saccharinum (Sugar Maple) . 66 

Schwedleri 32,66 

AcHANiA (Turk's Cap) 67 

achdcenes 340 

acroclinium . . . . . . .225 

Adiantum 299,339 

CapiUus-veneris 204 

iEscuLUS (Horse-chestnut) , . . .67 
Califomica (Common Buckeye) 68 

camea 68 

glabra (Ohio Buckeye) ... 68 

hippocastanum 68 

Agapanthus (African Lily) . . .182 

Agave (Century-plant) 216 

Ageratum 226 

Agrosteuma 226 

coronaria 226 

Albizzia Julibrissin . 26, 30, 33, 68, 327 
Alder (Alnus) . . . .69,324 

Allspice (See Calycanthus) . . .77 
Almond (See Amygdalus) .... 70 

Alnus (Alder) 69,324 

Alocasia 294,340,361 

Aloe 219,342 

ciliaris 219 

vera 219 

Aloyslv citriodora (Sweet scented 
Verbena) 69 




Alsophila australis 204 

Altera rosea (Hollyhock) . .226 

Alternanthera . . 335»342,350i3S3 

Alyssum 228,342 

alpestre (sweet) 228 

saxatile 228 

Amarantus 228 

bicolor 228 

salicifolius 228 

tricolor 228 

Amaryllis 182 

Belladonna 182 

Imantophyllum miniatum .183 

Vallota purpurea 183 

Ammophila arenaria (Sea Bent 

Grass) 320 

Ampelopsis 28, 171 

quinquefolia (Virginia-creeper) . 171 
tricuspidata (Boston Ivy) . . .171 

Amygdalus (Almond) 70 

Anemone. . . 228,334,341,357,367 
coronaria .... 228,356,361 

fulgens 229 

hepatica 228 

Japonica 228, 229 

Annuals. . . 334, 34i,35o> 358,361 
Antirrhinum (Snapdragon) 


majus 229 

Aphides (Green or Brown Fly) 

. . . 273,303,304,362,373 

black 304,362 

Aphis 362 

Aponogeton 346 

Apple (See P3rrus) . . . 32,148,330 
Approaches to House .... 5 

Apricot 32, 330 

April 346 

Aquilegia (Columbine) .... 230 

cxrulea 230 

chrysantha 230 

glandulosa 230 

ArABIS 2?9,342 

Aralia 22, 107 

Araucaria 70,326 

Bidwilli 70 

brasiliana 70 


Araucaria — Continued 

Cookii 70 

1 excelsa 33,7© 

imbricata ... . . 33,70 

Arbutus 71 

Menziesii (Madrone) . . • 71 
Unedo (Strawberry Tree) . 

Areca 294 

Baurii 294 

lutescens 294 

sapida 194 

Aristolochia 171 

sipho (Dutchman's pipe) . . .171 

AROiDEiE 191 

Arundinaria 208, 211 

falcata 208,211 

Hindsia 211 

Japonica 211 

M6tak6 208 

Simonii 211 

Arundo 212,215,286 

conspicua 212,215 

Donax 212,215 

Ash (See Fraxinus) iii 

mountain. (See Pynis aucuparia) 149 
mountain. (See Sorbus aucu- 
paria) 157 

Asparagus plumosus 339 

Sprengeri 339 

Aspect op Site i 

Aspidistra lurida 294 

lurida variegatf ..... 294 

\splenium 204, 299 

Aster 188,230,335,342,362 

Chinese annual 230 


AucuBA Japonica 21, 22, 23, 24, 26,32, 71 

aurea 71 

bicolor 71 

picta alba variegata .... 71 

August 358 

Auricula 342 

Australian Blue-bell . . 157 

Australian Flame Tree. (See 
Sterculia) 160 



AusTiiALiAN Gum. (See Eucalyptus) 

Azalea 32,72,345,348 

AzASA Mackofhylla . . . . 33, 73 
Balsam. (See Imp^tiens) . . .253 
Bamboos 22,23,26,28,30,33,36,208,212 


and Grasses. 
Arundinaria falcata 
Arundinaria Hindsia 
Arundinaria Japonica 
Arundinaria M6tak6 
Arundinaria Simonii 
Bambusa aurea 
Bambusa marmorea 
Bambusa palmata . 
Bambusa quadrangularis 
. . . 13 


grouping of . . . 

in Parlor-Gardening 

Phyllostachys aurea 

Phyllostachys henonis . 

Phyllostachys nigra . 

planting of ... . 

propagation of . . . 

see Bambusa 

situation for. 

water for .... 


Barberry. (See Berberis) 
Barley-seed. ... 
Basins (Soil) for Water Plants 
Baskets, Hanging . . . 


Bedding Plants . . . 

Beech. (See Fagus sylvatica) 

Begonia 231, 294, 296, 333, 336, 339, 340, 

341, 346, 349, 353, 355, 358, 362, 367, 369 
Gloire de Lorraine . . 349, 374 

rubra 231 

Vernon 231,232 

Begonia mite 361 

Bell-flower. (See Abutilon) . . 64 
Bellis perennis (Daisy) . . . .232 

Benches, rustic 41 

Benthamia 74 

Berberis 74 

Aquifolium 74 

buxifolia 75 

. 208 

208, 211 
. 211 
. 211 
. 208 
. 211 
. 208 
. 212 
. 212 
. 212 

208, 212 
. 294 
. 211 

208, 212 

208, 286 
. 211 

208, 211 
. 208 


. 73 



Berberis — Continued 

Darwinii 30, 74 

Japonica 75 

loxensis 75 

nepalensis 74 

stenophylla 75 

Bermuda Grass 58 

Betula alba 75 

Bignonia 24,172 

capreolata 172 

Cherere 172 

diversifolia 172 

floribunda 172 

Tweediana 24, 172 

venusta 172 

Birch, groups of . . . 13, 14, 208, 286 

(See Betula alba) . . . 23,33,75 

Blechnum brasiliense .... 204 

Spicant 204 

BoccoNiA 233 

cordata 233 

frutescens 233 

integrifolia 233 

Bone Meal 349 

Bordeaux Mixture . . . 244, 303 
Boston Fern. (See Nephrolepis 

exaltata) 294,339 

Bottom Heat 318 

Bottoming roads and walks ... 44 

Bougainvillea 22, 173 

glabra 173 

lateritia 173 

Saundersiana 173 

speciosa 173 


augustifolia 75 

jasminiflora 76 

scabra 75 

Boxes (Soil) for Water Plants . 286 
Boxwood (Tree). (SeeBuxus). 

.... 22,24,26,28,30,76,374 
Breath of Heaven. (See Diosma) . 97 
Broom. (See Cytisus) . 23, 94 
Spanish. (See Spartium junceum) 158 
Buckeye. (See iEsculus) .... 67 
Buckthorn. (See Rhamnus) . . .152 
Budding 311 



Bulbous and Tuberous-Rooted 

Plants . 182 

Bulbs, division op 317 

in Window-box 296 

examination of 369 

Butternut. (Seejuglans) . . .120 
Buxus (Tree Boxwood) .... 76 

balearica 76 

Japonica 76 

Japonica microphylla .... 76 

longifolia 76 

sempervirens 20, 23, 32 

suffruticosa 76 

Cactus 216,220,296,342 

Caladil^ 340, 345 » 368 

esculentum 294,341 

Calandrinia 233 

Calandrinia caulescens. (See Por- 
tulaca) 266 

Calceolaru . . . 3S3» 355*368, 373 
Calendar of Operations . . .329 

January 330 

February 334 

March 341 

April 346 

May 349 

June 353 

July 356 

August 358 

September 362 

October 367 

November 369 

December 373 

Calendula 234 

Callistemon . . . 21,23,30,33,77 
Calochortus (Mariposa Lily) . .183 
Calycanthus (Carolina Allspice) . 77 
Camellia . . . 28,32,78,326,370 

Campanula 234, 296, 341 

carpatica .... 234,356,370 
Medium (Canterbury Bells) . . 234 

pyramidalis 234 

Camphor-tree. (See Laurus 

camphora) . 24,2628,33,124,338, 
Canary Islands Date-palm . . . 308 
Candytuft. (See Iberis) .... 253 
Canna (Indian shot) . 235, 347, 358 


Canna — Continued 

indica 235 

Canterbury Bells. (See Campan- 
ula) 234,356,370 

Caragana 78 

Carnation. (See Dianthus cary- 
ophyllus) . 24, 26, 28, 242, 299, 341 , 

350. 354, 356, 367 
Carpinus Betulus (Hornbeam) . . 79 

Carya (Hickory Tree) 79 

alba (Shellbark Hickory) ... 79 
olivefonnis (Pecan-nut Tree) . . 79 

Caryophyllus 242 

Cassia 80 

corymbosa 80 

marilandica 80 

sophera 80 

Castanea (Chestnut) 80 

Casuarina (She-oak) 81 

Catch-ply (Silene) . . . 275, 298, 363 
Caterpillars .... 273,306,307 
Ceanothus (California Lilac) ... 81 

Cedars, Grouping op 13 

Incense. (See Libocedrus) . .128 

of Lebanon 82,326 

(SeeCednis) 82 

Cedrua 82 

Atlantica 33,82 

Atlantica glauca 82 

Deodora .... 30,33,82,326 
Libani (Cedar of Lebanon) . 30, 82 

Celosia 236,333,336 

Centaurea (Corn-flower) . .236 

ragusina 236 

Century-plant. (See Agave). . .216 

Cerasus Zz 

ilicifolia 83 

Lauro-Cerasus (English Laurel) 


serrulata 83 

Portugal Laurel 83 

CERas (Judas Tree) 84 

Cereus 220 

Emoryii 221 

giganteus 221 

Cestrum 23,84 

aurantiacum 21,84 




Cestrum — Continued 

elegans 84 

fasciculatum 84 

Chail£Rops 194 

excelsa 194 

humilis 194 

Cheikanthus (Wallflower) . .237 

Cherry 28,32,33,304 

Weeping Japanese .148 

Chestnut. (See Castanea) ... 80 
• Horse. (See ^Esculus) . . 33, 67 

Chinese Pink. (See Dianthus) . . 244 

Choisya ternata 

. . . 20,21,22,23,26,28,32,33,85 

Chrysanthemum 237, 348, 354, 355, 356, 


anemone 238 

incurved 238 

Japanese 238 

Pompones' 238 

recur\'ed 238 

Cineraria 238, 333, 334, 353, 355, 357, 368 

Cistus (Rock-rose) 28, 85 

Citrus Aurantium (Sweet Orange) . 86 
Decumana (Shaddock) ... 86 

Japonica 86 

Limetta (Lime) 86 

Limonum (Lemon) 86 

nobilis (Mandarin) .... 86 

trifoliata 86 

vulgaris (Bitter Orange) ... 86 

Clay — ^Treatment of . . 38, 54 

Use in puddling lakes and ponds 282 

Clematis 22,24,28,173 

paniculata 173 

Clethra 87 

arborea 87 

quercifolia 87 

Clianthus 87 

puniceus 20,30,87 

Climbers AXD Twiners . 171,330,354, 

374, 375 
Clover 58 

Cob^:a scandexs 174 

Cock's-comb 350 

Cocos 197 

australis 197 

Cocos — Continued 

plumosa . . .9,195,197,294 

Coffee-tree, Kentucky. (See Gym- 

nocladus) ;ii5 

Coffee, Wild. (See Rhamnus) . .152 

Cold or Cool Frame 317 

CoLEUS . . 340,345,349.350,355.358 


Columbine. (See AquUegia) . 230, 341 
Conservatory — ^The Amateur's. 

(See Greenhouse) 299 

Construction of Roads and Walks 40 
CopROSMA (New Zealand Holly) . . 88 


. . . 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 32, 33 

picturata 88 

variegata 88 

Coral-tree. (See Erythrina) ... 99 
Coral Bush. (See Templetonia) . .164 

Coreopsis 239,342 

Corn-flower. (See Centaurea) . . 


Cornucopia Flower. (See Datura) 95 

CoRNUS (Dogwood) 88 

florida 89 

Nuttallii 88 

sanguinea 89 

Coronilla 28,89 

corynecarpus ... 23, 28, 30, 33, 89 

corypha australis 294 

Cosmos 239,345 


Cottonwood. (See Populus) . . .324 
Cotyledon (Echeveria) . . . .221 
Cowslip. (See Primula) 267,349,368,370 
Crassula . . 216,221,222,342 

arborescens 221,222 

coccinea 222 

Crat^gus (Hawthorn) 20,30,90 

Cream-cup. (See Platystemon) . . 265 

Crocus 183,367 

Croton 373 

Crowning roads and walks . . .42 

Cryptomeria 33,93 

CuPRESSUS (Cypress) 93 

Lawsoniana 20, 23, 28, 32. 33, 93 
Monterey 93 



CupRESSUS — Continued 

Nutkaensis 91 

sempervirens (Italian C>press) 93 

Cuttings, PROPAGATION BY . . . '3x5 

in hot-bed 317 

Cycas 373 

Cyclamen 373 

Cydonia Japonica (Japanese Quince)3 2, 94 

alba 94 

Cyperus 346 

Cypress. (See Cupressus) .... 
• • • 13132,33,48,93,222,326,374 

Italian 93,359 

Montezuma. (See Taxodium) . 163 
Swamp. (See Taxodium) . .163,286 
Monterey . . 24, 26, 28, 93, 324, 325 

Cystopteris fragilis 204 

Cytisus (Broom) 94 

racemosus 28,94 

Daffodil. (See Narcissus) 


Dahlia . . 240,335,342,347,350,354. 

imperialis 240 

Juarezii 240 

variabilis 240 

Daisy. (See Bellis perennis) . .232 

Transvaal. (See Gerberia Jamie- 

sonii) 249 

Dandelion 59 

Daphne 23, 28, 95 

Datura (Cornucopia flower) ... 95 

arborea 95 

comigera 95 

sanguinea 95 

suaveolens 95 

Davallia 299,339 

Deciduous trees, shrubs and 

climbers .... 48,330,374 

December 373 

Delphinium (Larkspur) .24,242,370 

Deodar 326 

Deutzia 20,96,356 

crenata 96 

gracilis 96 


DiANTHUS 244,345 





DiANTHUS — Continued 

Chinese Pink (Chinensis) . 

Sweet William (barbatus) . 
dicksonia antarctica 



Digitalis (Foxglove) . . .245,342 

DioSMA (Breath of Heaven) . . . 

26, 28,32,97 

Directions AND Explanations . . 309 

Diseases of Plants. (See Insects) . 302 

Nature and Causes of . . . 302 

mildew 301* 

Ditches — ^drainage 39 

Division of the Bulbs . .317 

Dock 59 

Dogwood. (See Comus) .... 88 

DoLiCHOS 174 

DoRONicuM 245,334,370 

DRACiENA . .46, 299 

Terminalis 293 

Drainage 38 

ditches 39 

tiles 38 

with clay soil 38 

with rocks 38 

pipe 39 

Drains — tile 38 

Drives, location of 5 

(See Roads and Lawns) 

DuRANTA Plumieri 28, 97 

Dutchman's Pipe. (See Aristolochia 

sipho) 171 

Dusting plants 303 

with tobacco 304 

with sulphur 305,306 


EcHEVERiA (Cotyledon) 221,222, 342 


polycephalus 220 

viridescens 220 

EcmuM (Viper's bugloss) . . . .97 
Elder. (See Sambucus) . . .155,324 
El^agnus (Wild Olive) .... 98 
Elm. (SeeUlmus) . .23,26,167,326 





Ekica (Heath) 33, 98 

arborea 99 

capitata 99 

gracilis 99 

hybrida 99 

hyemalis 99 

Mediterranea 20,99 

melanthera 99 

persoluta 33i98,99 

ventricosa 99 

Wilhnorei 99 

Erythea 197 

armata (Blue Palm) .... 197 
edulis ' . 197 

Eeythrina (Coral-tree) . . . 30, 99 

Humei 99 

Indica 99 

EscALLONiA 20,32,100 

Monte\'idensis . .28, 32, 100 
rosea •22, 23, 24, 30, 100 
rubra 21,33,100 

EscHSCHOLTZiA (California Poppy) 


Eucalyptus (Australian Gum) . . 

• . 13,48,54,103,323,325,341,374 
amygdalina 104 

comuta 103 

corymbosa 104 

corynocalyx 104 

ficifolia 32, loi, 103 

globulus (Blue Gum) . 103, 104,325 

leucoxyla 103 

Landsdownlana 103 

piperita 103 

pyriformis 103 

saligna 103 

sideroxylon 104 

tetragonus 103 

viminalis 104 

Eugenia 105 

latifolia or Smithiana . . 23,32,105 
myrtifolia 105 

EULALIA JaPONICA . 212,215,286 

EuoNYMUS (Spindle-tree) .... 
. . . . 20,21,22,24,33,105,374 

grandiflorus 106 

Japonica 23, 106 

EuoNYMUS — Continued 

Japonica argentea io6 

Japonica aurea io6 

Japonica Due de Anjou . . . io6 

latifolia io6 

Euphorbia 333 

Evergreens — ^time for planting 47 
ExogbOr^ (Spirsea grandiflora) . . 106 
Explanations and Directions . . 309 

Fabiana T07 

Fagus sylvatica (Beech) . . . .107 
False Nutmeg Tree. (See Torreya) . i66 

Fatsia 107 

horrida 108 

Japonica 108 

pap3Tifera io8 

February 334 

Feather-grass 212 

Ferns 32, 203, 205, 294, 

Adiantum Capillus veneris . 204 

Alsophila australis .... 204 

A-plenium 204 

Blechnum brasiliense .... 204 

Blechnum spicant 204 

Boston 294, 339 

Cystopteris fragilis .... 204 

Davallia 339 

Deer 204 

Dickson ia antarctica .... 204 

Five-finger 204, 294 

Lastraea 204 

Lygodium scandens .... 339 

Osmunda 204 

Poljrpodium 204 

Polystichum 204 

Pteris argyrsea 294 

Pteris cretica 294 

Pteris tremula 204 

Scolopendrium 204 

Woodsia 204 

Woodwardia .... 204, 294 
formaUon of fernery .... 203 

growing in pots 207 

planting 207 

rockery for . . . 203, 204, 209 
soil for 203 



Ferns — Continued 

sword 204 

tree 204, 205 

watering 204 

Fertilizer, in sand reclamation . 325 
Feverfew. (See Pyrethnim) . . . 267 
Ficus (Rubber Tree) 108, 109, 340 

elastica 109, 293 

Fig. (See Ficus) ... 32, 108, 109 
Indian. (See Opuntia or Prickly 

Pear) 220 

Fir. (See Abies) 63 

Grouping of 13, 41 

Pitch. (See Picea) .142 

Fir-tree Oil 304 

Formal Approach 359 

gardening 43i32i 

ForgAt-me-not. (See Myosotis) 258, 361 

in window-box 298 

Foot-path. (See Walks) .... 
Foxglove. (See Digitalis) .245,342 

Frames, cool or cold 317 

garden 317 

hot 317 

Fraxinus (Ash). Ill 

excelsior iii 

Fruit Trees 26, 330 

Fuchsia 18, 21, 24, 26, 28, 246, 247, 296, 346 


Fumigation OF greenhouse . . . 


by tent 307 

Gaillardia 345,350 

Garden, selection OF site for i 

preliminary plans for ... . i 

planting of 6,12 

water for 281 

frames 317 

formal 321 

Gardenia 112 

Fortuni 28, 112 

radicans major 112 

Gardening, parlor 293 

formal 321 

Gateway, location of ... . 5 

Gazania 249 

Genista 113 

Geranium (Pelargonium) . 21, 26, 28 


ivy 28,295 

Gerberia Jamiesonii (Transvaal 

Daisy) 249 

Gesneria 353 

Geum 250 

GiLiA 250 

Ginkgo (Maidenhair-tree) . 28,33,113 

biloba laciniata 1 13 

biloba pendula 1 13 

Gladiolus 251,341,356 

Gleditschia (Honey Locust) . .113 

aquatica 114 

Chinese 114 

Japanese 114 

Gloxinia 340 

Golden Chain. (See Laburnum) . 122 
Golden Feather. (See P>Tethrum) 267 

Grading 6,37 

roads and walks . 40, 44 

for lawns 55 

for lakes and ponds .... 282 

Grafting 314 

cleft 314 

saddle 314 

side 314 

whip 314 

Grasses 56,212 

Bermuda 58 

feather (Stipa pennata) .212 

for lawns 56 

grouping mixed 212 

Kentucky Blue 56 

orchard 212 

Pampas 212,215,217 

Rye, English and Australian . 56, 58 
Sea Bent .... 320,323,324 

seeds 55 

walks 321 

Green or brown fly. (See Aphides) . 

• . 273,303,336,347,348,362,373 
Greenhouse. (See Conservatory) . 299 

fumigation of . . . 304,306,373 

care of — ^January 333 

Februar>' 336 

March. . . . 342,345 



Greenhouse — Continued 
care of — ^April . . 
May . 
June . . 
July . . 

August 361 

September .... 363 

October 368 

November . -373 

December 374 

Grevillea 114 

fasciculata 114 

junip>erina 114 

punicea 114 

robusta .... 22,23,30,33,114 

saligna 114 

Thelemanniana 114 

vestita H4 

Ground, preparation of . . . 37i 374 

grading of 37 

grading for roads and walks 40 

draining 38 

for lawns 54 

platting 6 

plowing 37i40,47 

rolling 40 

trenching 37 

Grounds, arrangeicent of lawns, 

TREES and shrubs IN . . . 12 

preliminary plans for . .1,2,12 

surveying and platting of . . . 6 

Grouping trees and shrubs . 13 

flowers 17 

Gum. (See Eucalyptus) .... 103 

Blue 103, 104, 325 

Red 325 

Sweet. (See Liquidambar) .129 

Gymnocladus (Kentucky Coffee-tree) 115 

Gymnogramma 299 

Habrothamnus ....".. 33 

Hakea 115 

Halesia 115 

hispida 115 

Hanging Baskets 339 

replanting of 339 

Harrowing 37,40 

Hawthorn. (See Crataegus) 23, 24, 26,32,90 

Page Page 

Hawthorn — Continued 

. 348 Groups of 13 

. 353 Heat, bottom 318 

. 354 Heath. (See Erica) 98 

. 357 Hedera Helix (Ivy) 175 

Hedge 33o»35i 

Helianthus (Sunflower) . . . .251 

multiflorus 252 

Heliotrope. . . . 24,252,296,335 

common or Peruvianum . . .252 

Herbaceous and Bedding Plants 225 

Heteromeles arbutifolia . . .13 

serratifolia 28, 141 

Heuchera 252 

sanguinea 252 

Hickory. (See Carya) .... 79 

Holly. (See Hex) 33i "7 

native 13, 141 

New Zealand. (See Coprosma) . 88 
Hollyhock. (See Althaea rosea) . . 


Honeysuckle. (See Lonicera) . . 


English 177 

Japanese 178 

Scrub. (See Banksia) .... 73 
Hornbeam. (See Carpinus Betulus) . 79 
Horse-chestnut. (See iEsculus) . . 67 

Hose 17 

Hot-bed 317 

Hot frame 317 

HousELEEK. (See Semj>ervivum) . . 224 
House, selection of site for . . i 
Hyacinth . . . 184,296,306,333, 

wood. (See Scilla) . .191 

Hydrangea 23,26,116 

hortensis 116 

Dr. Hogg 116 

Japonica 116 

paniculata 116 

Hymenosporum flavum . 28,30,33,116 

Hypericum 117 

Androsaemum 117 

Moserianum 117 

patulum 117 

Iberis (Candytuft) 253 




Ilex (Holly) 24,117 

opaca 118 

iBtPATiENS 253 

Balsam 253 

Sultani 253 

Indian fig. (See Opuntia) .220 

Indian shot. (See Canna) . 235 

Indigofera 118 

australis 119 

decora 119 

tinctoria 119 

Insects injurious to plants .302, 336 
Aphides or Green Fly . 273, 303, 336 

Black Fly 304 

Caterpillars ..... 273, 306 
fumigation for . . . 304, 305, 307 

in window-box . 298 

Mite 361,373 

Red Spider 305,306 

Rose-leaf roller . . 348 

Slugs 307 

Scale 307, 3o8» 336 

Thrips 304 

Mealy-bug 339 

locHROMA 119 

grandiflora 119 

lanceolata 119 

tubulosa 119 

IPOMceA 175,345 

Iresine . . . .254,335,342,350,353 

Iris 185,334,346,362 

florentina 185 

Germanica 185, 370 

Japanese 286,346 

Ksempferi 185,370 

major 334 

pumila 185 

reticulata 334 

susiana 185 

tectorum 185 

IsoLEPis 340 

Itea 119 

Virginica 119 

Ivy. (See Hedera Helix) . 22,175,334 
Boston. (See Ampelopsis tri- 

cuspidata) 171,334 

Ixia 185 


Jacaranda 120 

January 330 

Japanese Pagoda Tree. (See So- 

phora) 157 

Japanese Weeping Cherry. (See 

Prunus) 147 

Jasmine. (See Jasminiun officinale). 176 
Jasminum . . 175 

nudiflorum 28, 176 

officinale (Jasmine) .176 

Jonquil. (See Narcissus Jonquilla). 190 

JuB^A 197 

spectabilis (Wine Palm) . 49, 197 

Judas Tree. (See Cercis) ... 84 

Juglans 120 

Califomica 120 

cinerea (Butternut) . . .120 

nigra (Eastern Black Walnut) . 120 
regia (English Walnut) . . . 1 20 

Sieboldiana 120 

July 356 

June 353 

Juniper. (See Juniperus) .22, 24,121,222 

JUNiPERUS 30,33,121 

Bermudiana 120 

Califomica 120 

Chinensis 28, 1 2 1 

communis 120 

Fortunis 120 

procumbens 120 

sabina 120 

Suecica 120 

prostrata 24, 28, 30 

Virginiana 120 

Kennedya 176 

Kentia Belmoriana 293 

Kentucky Blue Grass 56, 57 

Kentucky Coffee-tree. (See Gym- 

nocladus) 115 

Kerria 122 

Kniphofia (Redhot Poker Plant) . 186, 370 

Kcelreuteria paniculata .122 

Laburnum (Golden Chain) . 28,30,122 

Adami 122 


vulgare 122 

aureum 122 

" involutum 122 



Laburnum — Continued 

vulgare quercifolium . .122 

" Watereri 122 

Lady Washinxton. (See Pelargon- 
ium) 262 

Lagerstrcemia (Crape Myrtle) . .123 
Lakes. (See Ponds, Lakes and the 
Water Garden) . . 281, 283, 287 

Landscapes, natural 13 

disposition of trees and shrubs in 20 

Lantana 123 

Larkspur. (See Delphinium) . . .242 

Lasiandra (Pleroma) 124 

macrantha 124 

Lastr^a 204 

Latania borbonica 294 

Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet-pea). . 176 

Laurel 33» 106, 370, 374 

California. (See Umbellularia 

Calif omica) 45 » 168 

Chinese 83 

English. (See Cerasus) ... 83 

grouping of 13, 14, 17 

Portugal. (See Cerasus) . 23, 24, 26, 

28, 30, 83 

Laurus CABfPHORA (Camphor- tree) 32, 124 

Laurus nobilis . . . 24, 26, 127 

Laurus Tinus 26,30 

Lawns . . . 24,54,55,343,369,373 

grading for 55 '^ 

grasses for 56 

location of 8 

manure for 55 

outlines of 7, 55 

preliminary work for . 55 

raking 56 

rolling 55,57,369 

seed for 56 

soil for 55 

surroundings of 13 

water for 57 

weeds in 55,58 

Layering, propagation by . . .316 
Lemon. (See Citrus Limonum) . 32, 86 
Leptospermum . . 23,33,125,127,325 



Leucadendron (Silver Tree) . . .128 

argenteum 128 

Leveling THE Ground. . . . 37,44 
LiBOCEDRUS (Incense Cedar) . . .128 

Chilensis 128 

decurrens 24,33,128 

Doniana 128 

Lice, Plant. (See Aphides) . . . 303 
LiGUSTRUM (Privet) . . 23,30,129 

Ibota 28,3^,129 

Japonicum . . .20, 24, 26, 28, 1 29 

luddum 129 

ovalifolium .129 

Lilac. (See Syringa) 

. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 162 
California. (See Ceanothus) 8^ 

European 162 

grouping of 13 

Japanese 162 

Persian 162 

LiLiUM 187 

auratum 187 

candidum (St. Joseph's Lily) . .187 

giganteum 187 

Hiunboldti 187 

lancifolium 187 

pardalinum 187 

tigrinum 187 

Washingtonianum 187 

Lily. (SeeLiliiun) . 187,289,346,369 
African. (See AgafMinthus) . .182 
Calla. (See Richardia Ethiopica) 191 

Calla 286,346 

Mariposa. (See Calochortus) . 183 
Royal Purple. (See Nymphaea 

Zanzibarensis) 288 

St. Joseph's. (See Lilium candi- 
dum) 187 

Water 286, 289, 346 

Lime por Slugs 307 

Lime. (See Citrus Limetta) ... 86 
Linden. (SeeTilia). . 23,32,33,166 

grouping of 14 

LiPPIA reptans 58 

Liquidambar (Sweet Gum) . 28,33,129 

Styraciflua 129 

Liriodendron. (Tulip-tree) . 28, 33, 130 





LmsTONiA 198 

australis 198 

Chinensis 198 

Lobelia 254, 296, 333, 335, 336, 345, 347 
cardinalis 254, 255, 258, 336, 350, 370 

. . 254 

• • 153 
. . 113 
. . 177 


Location of a Site . . . . 
Locust. (See Robinia) 

Honey. (See Gleditschia) 
LoNiCERA. (Honeysuckle) 
Lot Planting Plan 
25' X 120 

40 X 120 

50' X 150' . 

75' X 150' . 

100' X 180' . 

150' X 200' . 

200' X 350' . 

300' X 400' . 

ten acre tract 




. ... 23 

• • • 24,25 

26, 27 

. . 28, 29, 30 

. . 30,3i»32 

Lotus. (See Nelumbium) . .291,346 

Lupins. (See Lupinus) . 255, 336 

Yellow 320 

Lupinus 255,342 

arboreus 255,320 

bicolor 255,342 

Chamissonis 255 

Lychnis 256 

Lygodium scandens . 339 

l.yonothamnus 130 

Madrone. (See Arbutus) 71 

Magnolia .... 331131,326,370 

acuminata 131 

conspicua 131 

grandiflora . . 21,23,24,32,131 

moschata 131 

obovata 131 

parviflora 131 

Soulangeana 131 

stellata 131 

tripetala 131 

Maidenhaik-tree. (See Ginkgo) . 113 

Mammillarias 220 

Mammillaria Goodrichii . .220 

Mammillaria Grahamiana .220 

Mandevilla suaveolens . . 24, 28, 178 

Manure . . 356 

Manure — Continued 

use in trenching 38 

use in planting and transplanting 53 

use in preparing soil for lawns . 55, 59 

use in mulching and top-dressing. 310 

Maple. (See Acer) . . 20, 21, 24, 28, 

32, ^^, 66. 324 

grouping of 13, 14 

Norway 324 

Maranta 294,373 

bicolor 294 

zebrina 294 

March 341 

Marigold 345 

Marliacea Hybrids 288 

Matthiola. (Stock) 256 

Maurandya 178 

May 349 

Maytenus 132 

boaria .... 23,28,32,60,132 

Chilensis 28, 132 

Medlar. (See Mespilus) .... 136 

Melaleuca 132, 133 

decussata 132 

fulgens 132 

Leucadendron . 132, 133 

Melia Azedarach. (Umbrella Tree) 135 

Melianthus major 136 



aequilaterale 223 

australis 223 

spectabile 223 

versicolor 223 

Mespilus. (Medlar) 136 

Japonica 135,136 

Metrosideros 136 

robusta 136 

Mignonette. (See Reseda) . . 268 

Mignonette .... 296,342,356 

Mildew 174,273,302,303 

Grape Vine 302 

Hop 303 

Pear 303 

Powdery 302 

Rose 273,302,303 

treatment for 303 




MiMULUS 257 

cardinalis 257 

glutinosus 257 

luteus 257 

moschatus. (Musk) . .257 

Mite 361, 373 

Mock Orange. (See Philadelphus) . 



MoRUS NIGRA. (Mulberry) . . .137 


complexa 179 

Mulberry. (See Morus nigra) .137 

Mulching AND TOP-DRESSING . . 309 

flower beds ...'.... 310 

lawns 310 

seeds 310 

trees and shrubs . • 53>3io 

Mullein. (See Verbascum) . .276 

MusA 258 

Cavendishii 258 

coccinea 258 

Ensete 258 

Musi^. (See Mimulus moschatus) . . 257 
Myosotis. (Forget-me-not) . . . 


Myrica 137 

Myrtle. (See Eugenia) .... 


Common. (See Myrtus com- 
munis) 137 

Crape. (See Lagerstrcemia) . .123 

Myrtus. (Myrtle) 137 

apiculata 137 

bullata 137 

communis 137 

Nandina domestica 138 

Narcissus. (Daffodil) . 188, 296, 298, 363 

Jonquilla. (Jonquil) .... 190 

Nasturtium. (See Tropaeolum) . .275 

Nasturtium .... 294, 296, 342 

Nelumbium 286, 291 ,292 

album grandiflorum .291 

luteum. (American Lotus) . .291 
speciosum. (Egyptian Lotus) . 291 

Nemophila 259,336,341 

aurita -259 


Nemophila — Continued 

insignis 259 

Nephrolepis exaltata. (See Bos- 
ton Fern) 294 

Nerium. (Oleander) . . 26,30,32,138 

November 369 

Nursery Rows 316 

Nutmeg Tree, False. (See Torreya) 166 

NYMPHiEA 286,346 

alba 288, 292, 346 

Carolinensis . 286 

candidissima 288 

caerulea 288 

chromatella 346 

dentata 288 

Devoniensis 288 

exquisita ....... 286 

fulgens 288 

lotus 288 

Marliacea 346 

odorata . . ' . 286. 292 

rosea 288 

sulphurea 286 

tuberosa 287,346 

Zanzibarensis. (Royal Purple 

Lily) 288 

Oak. (See Quercus) 

. . . 13,14,17,45,149324,331 
Attacks of caterpillars . 306 

Black . . .151 

Cork 151 

English iSo» 151 

Evergreen 151 

Live 150 

Pin 151 

Shrub or Scrub .13,324 

Turkey 151 

White 150 

Willow 151 

October 367 

(Enothera 259 

albicaulis 259 

biennis 259 

bistorta 259 

cheiranthifolia 259 

ovata 259 

Offsets — propagation by . .316 



Oleander. (See Nerium) .18, 138 

Oleakia 138 

Forsteri 139 

Gunniana 139 

Haastii 139 

Olea EuROPiEA. (Olive) . . . .139 

Olive. (See Olea Europaea) . . 32,139 

Wild. (See Elsagnus) ... 98 

Opuntia. (Indian Fig) . . . .220 

ficus indica 221 

littoralis 221 

prolifera 221 

Orange. (See Citrus) . . . 32, 86 
Mock. (See Philadelphus) . 140, 356 


aquifolium 139 

fragrans 139 



Padding — in staking trees . . .52 

P^ONIA (Paeony) 260 

Moutan 260 

officinalis 260 

Pagoda Tree, Japanese 157 

Palms. 32, 33, 194, 333, 351, 357, 371, 373 

Blue. (See Erythea armata) . . 197 

Cabbage. (See Sabal Palmetto) . 199 

California Fan. (See Washing- 

tonia) 200, 201 

Date 197,308 

for Conservatory 299, 301 

Japanese Cane. (See Rhapis) 199, 294 

moving 49 

potting 300i3Pi 

Soil for 299 

Sidewalk 9, 195 

Wine. (See Jubaea spcctabilis) 49, 197 
Pampas Grass .30, 212, 215, 217, 283, 286 

Pandanus unus 294 

Panicum 340 

Pansy. (See Viola) 277 

Pansy. . 24, 229, 296, 298, 356, 363, 368 

Papaver (Poppy) 261 

bracteatum 261 

Danebrog 261 

orientale 261 

Shirley 261,342 

Papaver — Continued 

somniferum 261 

Papyrus antiquorum . . . 286, 346 

Parkinsonia 140 

Parlor Gardening 293 

Passiflora 180 

Paulownia 140 

Peach 330 

pEACOCic-FLO^'ER. (See Poinciana) . 145 

Pear 32,330 

Pecan-nut tree 79 

Pelargonium (Geranium) . . . .262 

Lady Washington 262 

zonale 262, 296 

Pentstemon . 262,336,341,350 

Pepper tree. (See Schinus molle) 


Petunia 263,294,335,342 

Philadelphus (Mock Orange) . . 


coronarius 26, 140 

Gordonianus 141 

grandiflorus 141 

Phillyrea 30, 141 

Phlox . . 21,24,30,264,341,347,370 
Drummondii . . . 264,335,345 
subulata 264 

Phoenix 199 

Canadensis . . 22, 28, 33, 198, 199 

dactylifera 199 

reclinata ai, 199 

rupicola 199 

sylvestris 199 

Zeylanica 199 

Photinia (California Redberry or 

Holly) 23, 141 

Phyllostachys . . . . 208,211,212 

aurea 211 

henonis 208, 212 

nigra 212 

Phyllocactus 220 

Picea (Pitch Fir) 142 

PiCEA PUNGENS (Blue Spruce) ... 33 


PiMELIA 143 

rosea 24, 26, 28, 143 




Pine. (See Pinus) 

. . 13, 41, 48, 143, 222, 287, 326, 374 

Austrian 324 

grouping of 17, i43 

Italian Stone 144 

maritime 324 

Monterey . . 28,30,143,324,325 

sugar 143 

yellow 324 

Pinks. (See Dianthus) 244,367 

Pinus (Pine) 33, ^43 

Cembra 144 

halepensis 144 

insignis 143, 208 

Lambertiana 143 

Murrayana 143 

Pinea 144 

rigida 143 

Pipe (Water) 17 

for lakes 285 

PiTTOSPORUM. . 20, 22, 106, 144, 370, 374 
crassifolium . •144 

eugenioides 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 144 

nigricans 24, 144 

tobira 21,24,32,144 

imdulatum 33, 144 

Plan, DETAILED 12,18 

for lakes and ponds .281 

of grounds and garden . . 12 

of planting, preparing .... 7 

of grouping 10 

preliminary 2 

planting — 
for lot 25 
for lot 40 
for lot 50 
for lot 75 
for lot 100 
for lot 150 
for lot 200 
for lot 300 
for lot of 10 acres 

Plane-tree. (See Platanus) . 

Planting and Transplanting 
care of roots in ... 

' X 


' X 


' X 


' X 


' X 


' X 


' X 


' X 





. ... 23 

. . . 24,25 

26, 27 

■ . 28, 29, 30 

• • 30,31,32 


. ■ 145 

• . 47 

• 51,53 

grouping, etc 10, 13 

ferns 207 

Planting and Transplanting — Continued 

harmony in 14 

on hill site 12 

operation of 48 

plan of 7,47 

time for 47 

large trees • • S3 

Plant Lice. (See Aphides) . . . 303 
Platanus (Plane-tree, Sycamore) . . 145 
Platystemon (Cream-cup) . 265 

Pleasure Garden and Grounds, 

planning op 12 

Pleroma. (See Lasiandra) .124 

Plow, sub-soil 37 

Plowing 37, 40, 47 

cross 40 

Plum. (SeePrunus) . 32,147,330 

Plumbago 21, 145 

cap>ensis 145 

Zeylanica 145 

Plunging 318 

PoiNCiANA (Peacock- flower) . 145 

pulcherrima 146 

regia 146 

POINSETTLV . . 266,333,356,363,375 

Dalmaisiana 33, 146 



Pomegranate. (See Punica grana- 

tum) 148 

Ponds, Lakes and the Water Gar- 
den 281, 289, 346 

bottom for 282 

excavating for 282 

piping for 285 

planning out 282 

plants for 285 

puddling 282 

size and shape 281,285 

soil boxes for 286 

staking out 282 


Poplar. (See Populus) . 23, 147 
aspen 147 



Poplar — Continued 

Carolina 147 

grouping of 17 

Lombardy (pyramidalis) . . 147 

silver-leaved 147 

Poppy. (See Papa ver) 261 , 336, 342,35o» 353 
California. (See Eschscholtzia) . 245 
Matilija. (See Romneya Coulteri.) 154 

Shirley 261,342 

PopuLUS (Poplar) 33, 147 

Portugal Laurel . 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 83 
PoRTULACA (Purslane) . 216, 266 

Potato Vine. (See Solanum jasminoi- 

des) 180 

potentilla 266 

Pots, si/e, treatment, etc 300, 301 

for fems 207 

Potting 300,301 

ferns 207 

Preparation OF THE Ground. -37 

Pricking out 311 

Prickly Pear. (See Opuntia) . .220 

Primrose. (See (Enothera) -259 

(See Primula) .... 267 


Primula 267,333,357,368 

Japonica 267 

obconica 267, 368 

sinensis 349i353,368 

stellata 368 

Privet. (See Ligustrum) . .129 

Propagation, by division of the 

BULBS 317 

. by cuttings 315,3^7 

by layering 316 

by offsets 316 

by suckers 316 

Prunus (Plum) 30, 147 

Mume .... 24, 28, 30, 33, 147 

pendula 147 

Pissardii iZyi^l 

sinensis flore pleno 147, 148 

triloba 148 

Pruning 330 

Pteris argyr.ea 294 

cretica 294 

tremula 204 



Puddling ponds and lakes . 282 

Punica granatum (Pomegranate) . 148 
Purslane. (See Portulaca) ... 266 
Pyrethrum (Feverfew) 267, 333, 335, 347 

roseum 268 

Pyrus (Apple) 149 

aucuparia (Mountain Ash) . 149 

Americana 149 

Belle- fleur 149 

floribimda 149 

Japonica 22, 149 

Malus 149 

Quassia extract 348 

QuERCUS (Oak) 28, 149 

Cerris .151 

palustris 151 

Phellos 151 

Robur 151 

suber 33. 151 

Virginiana 151 

Quince, Japanese. (See Cydonia 

Japonica) 94 

Raking, for Lawns 55 

Ranunculus AsiATicus 190,334 

Reclamation of sand 319 

by Sea Bent Grass . 320,323,324 

trees and shrubs used in 324,325 

Redberry. (See Photinia) . . 141 

Redhot Poker Plant. (See Knip- 

hofia) 186 

Red Spider 305, 361 

Redwood. (See Sequoia) . . 32,33,156 

grouping of 14 

Reseda (Mignonette) 268 

Retinospor.\ . . 23, 24, 26, 28, s^, 151 

retusa 148 

Rhamnus (Buckthorn) (Wild Coffee) 152 

Califomicus 152 

Rhapis (Cane Palm) 199 

flabelliformis (Japanese Cane 

Palm) 294 

Rhododendron. . .26,28,32,36,152, 


Calif omicum 152 

Catawbiense . 23,24,30,32,152 

ponticum 152 



RiCHARDiA Ethiopica (Calla Lily) . 191 

Roads 40 

bed of 44 

bottoming of 44 

construction of 40 

crowning 42 

finishing 46 

grading 40,42,44 

location of 5 

rock for 44 

rolling 45,46 

shaping 44 

staking out 5, 40 

through drifting sand . -320 

Robinia (Locust) 33 » 153 

RocHEA. (See Crassula coccinea) . .361 


for draining 39 

for roads and walks . . 44, 45 

Rockery, Fern 32, 202, 207, 341 

Rock-rose. (See Cistus) .... 85 

Rolling, lawns 55i 57 

roads and walks 44, 45, 46 

RoMNEYA Coulteri (Matilija Poppy) 


Rondeletia 333 

Roots, in planting and trans- 
planting 51 

in conser\'ator>' plants . 333 

Rosa (Rose) 269 

Banksias 269, 271 

Bourbons 272 

Cherokees 269, 271 

Climbers .... 272,354,375 

Diseases of 273 

Hybrid perpetuals . 270, 271, 272 

Manetti 270 

Pillar 272 

Ramblers 269, 271 

Standard 365 

Tea 272 

Rose-leaf roller 348 

•Rose. (See Rosa) 20,21,22,23,24,26,28, 

269, 299, 306, 330, 333, 347, 

348, 354, 358, 374 

Rose rust 273 

Rows, nursery 316 

Rubber Tree. (See Ficus) . 109,326 
Rubber Plant (Ficus Elastica) . . 293 

Rust 244 

Rye Grass 58 

Australian 58 

English 58 

Sabal Palmetto (Cabbage Palm) . 199 

Blackbumiana 199 

Mexicana 199 

umbraculifera 199 

Sagitaria 346 

Salisburia adiantifolia. (See Gink- 
go) 30,33 

Salix (Willow) 154 

alba 154 

babylonica 154 

vitellina •. 154 

Salpiglossis ..... 273,335 

Salt, for slugs 307 

Salvia 274,354 

patens 274 

Sambucus (Elder) 155 

aurea 155 

glauca 155 

racemosa 155 

Sand reclauation 319 

composition of sand . -319 

experiments in 319 

by Sea Bent Grass . 320,324 

shifting sand 310 

trees used in . . . 324,325 

fertilizer for 325 

Saxifraga 274,342 

palmata 274 

sarmentosa (Aaron's Beard) .274 
Scabiosa 275 

Scale . . 307,308,336,358,373,375 

ScHiNus molle (Pepper tree) . .30,155 

SciLLA (Wood Hyacinth) . 191,367 

campanula ta 192 


Sea Bent Grass (Ammophila aren- 

aria) 320 

culture of 324 

in shifting sand 320,323,324 

Seaforthia eleg.ans 200, 294 

Sedum 221,222,224,341 

[ 395 1 ^ 


Seoum — Continued 

sempervivum 224 

Seed, grass 56 

Sempervivum (Houseleek) 221, 224 

September 362 

Sequoia (Redwood) . . .156,326 

gigantea 33*^5^ 

sempervirens 156 

Service Tree. (See Sorbus domes- 

tica) 158 

She-oak. (See Casuarina) .81 

Shrubs 60 

form and habit 13 

deciduous .... 48,330,372 
grouping . . . . 8,11,13 

hardy 13 

mulching 53 

planting 47 

preparing the ground for . . 37 

pruning 330 

selection of 7 

stakes for 52, 54 

transplanting 47i 53 

Shrubbery, effect 13 

planting of 13 

SiLENE (Catch-fly) . . 275, 298, 363 

compacta 275 

pendula 275,361 

Silver Tree. (See Leucadendron) . 128 

Site, aspect of i 

for house and garden . . . . i 

grading of 6 

location of i 

planting 7 

Slugs 307 

Snapdragon. (See Antirrhinum) . .229 
Snowtball. (See Viburnum Opulus 

sterilis) 169 

Snowball (Chinese). (See Viburnum 

macrophyllum) 170 

Soil, Black Dobe 55, 59 

Brown loam 55, 59 

Clay 38, 55 

Drainage of 38 

for cacti 220 

for ferns 203, 207 

for lawns 55 


Soi L — Continued 

for palms 299 

for water plants . 286 

for window-box 295 

grading of 6,40,54 

harrowing 37 

mulching 53 

plowing 37,40,47 

sandy 55, 59, 319 

saving of 6, 40 

subsoil 37 

surface 37, 40 

trenching 37,55,33° 

use in planting and transplant- 
ing 47,51 

Soil-boxes or basins for water 


SOLANUM 180, 263 

jasminoides (Potato Vine) . 180 

Wendlandii 24, 180 

SoLLYA 28, 157 

Soot, remedy for slugs .... 306 


Japonica (Japanese Pagoda Tree) 157 
Sorbus AucupARiA (Mountain ash) . 157 

Americana 158 

domestica 158 

sambucifolia 158 

Sowing grass seed 55 

Spading 330 

Spanish Broom. (See Spartium jun- 

ceum) 20, 158 

Spartium junceum (Spanish Broom) . 

21, 24, 26, 28, 158 

Spindle-tree. (See Euon>'mus) . . 105 
SpiRiEA ... 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 33, 159 

Aruncus 159,346 

Chinensis . • 159 

Douglasit 159 

dumosa 159 

grandi flora. (See Exochorda) . . 106 

Japonica 159 

Lindleyana 159 

lobata 159 

media 159 

millefolia 159 

opulifolia 159 

1 396] 


Spiraa — Continued 

palmata 159 

pnmifolia 159 

Sponging palms 357 

window-box plants .... 298 

Spot 244 

Spruce i3i 33 

Stables, staking off 6 

Staking off, house site .... 2 
roads and walks 5,40 

stables 6 

trees 52 

Stakes, FOR house site . . . - StS 
for roads and walks 5, 40 

for stables 6 

for transplanting 52 

for trenching 37 

grade 41, 43 

line 40 

witness 43 

Sterculia 21, 160 

acerifolia (Australian Flame Tree) 160 

diversifolia 160 

platanifolia 160 

Stipa pennata (Feather-grass) .212 

Stock. (See Matthiola) 256, 336, 342, 356 
Strawberry Tree. (See Arbutus) 71 

Streptocarpus 361 

Streptosolen 24, 30, 160 

Styr.\x 161 

serrulata 161 

Subsoil 37 

plowing 37 

Succulents 216 

Suckers, propagation by . . .316 

Sulphur for mildew 303 

Summer-house 365 

Sunflower. (See Helianthus) 251 

SwAiNSONiA 30, 161 

Sweet-brier 28 

Sweet-pea. (See Lathyrus odoratus) 


Sweet-William. (See Dianthus) . 244 
Sycamore. (See Platanus) . 13,145,324 

Syncarpia laurifolia 161 

Syringing plants .... 333, 355 
Syringa. (Lilac) 162 

Syringa — Continued 

Japonica 162 

Persica 162 

vulgaris 162 

Tamarix 30, 163 

Gallica 163 

orientalis 163 

parviflora 163 

plumosa 163 

Tank, water 18 

Taxodium (Swamp Cypress) . . .163 

distichum 163, 286 

mucronatum (Montezuma Cy- 
press) 163 

Taxus (Yew) 164 

baccata 33, 164 

baccata argentea 164 

baccata aurea 33? 164 

baccata fastigiata 164 

Teedia 341 

Templetonia (Coral Bush) . . .164 

Terraced front 337 

Thistle 59 

Thrips 304 

Thuya 14, 165 

gigantea 22,30,165 

occidentals 165 

orientalis 165 

Thuyopsis dolabrata . . . . 33, 166 


Tiles, drainage 38 

TiLiA (Linden) 28, 32, 166 

Tobacco, for green fly, etc . . 


fumigation with 304 

Top-dressing. (See mulching) . 309 

ToRREYA. (False Nutmeg Tree) . 166 

Coulteri 166 

grandis 166 

Tradescantia 340 

Transplanting 47 

care of roots in 53 

deciduous trees and shrubs . .48 

Eucalyptus and Acacia ... 48 

hole for, size and shape, etc. . 48 

operation of 48 

Pine and Cypress 48 

1 397] 


Transplanting — Continued 

staking 52 

time for 47 

large trees 53 

Transvaal Daisy. (See Gerberia 

Jamiesonii) 249 

Trees 60 

Blending of groups 13 

column-shaped - 17 

deciduous 14148,330,372 

disposition of : 14 

evergreens 14,47,371 

form and habit 14 

grouping of 8, 11, 13 

hardy 7, ^3 

mapping out 11 

planting and transplanting 47, 53 

preparation of the ground for -37 

pyramidal 14 

roots, care of 51 

round headed 14 

selection of 7 

staking 52 

Trenching 37 

for lawns 55 

Tristania 167 

TROPiEOLUM (Nasturtium) -275 

speciosum 276 

tuberosum . . 276 

Trumpet Vine. (See Bignonia) . .172 
Tuberose. (See Polianthes tube- 

rosa) 190 

Tuberous-rooted plants .182 

Tulip . . 192, 296, 298, 334, 367, 370 
Tulip-tree. (See Liriodendron) . . 130 
Turk's Cap. (See Achania) ... 67 

Tyd.ea 340 

Ulmus (Elm) . 30, 32, 167 

Americana 167 

campeslris 167 

scabra 167 

Umellularia Californica (Cal- 
ifornia Laurel) . . 17,32,168 
Umbrella Tree. (See Melia Azeda- 

rach) 135 

Umbrella Plant 346 

\'erbascum (Mullein) 276 


Verbena 276,336,342,345 

Sweet scented. (See Aloysia 
citriodora) 69 

Veronica 33, 106, 168 

Andersonii 169 

buxifolia 169 

Colensoi 169 


. 20,21,22,26,28,32,33,60,167,169 
elliptica 169 

Viburnum 22, 32, 169 

Japonicum 170 

macrophyllum 170 

Opulus sterilis (Snowball) . . . 28, 169 

Tinus 20, 22, 23, 169 

tomentosum 170 

Victoria regia .- 291 

Viola (Pansy) .24,277 

comuta or homed violet . 


odorata (Violet) 279 

Violet. (See Viola odorata) . .279 

California 279 

Marie Louise 279 

Neapolitan . 279 

Princess of Wales 279 

Violet (Horned) 21. 22, 24, 278, 296, 

Viper's bugloss. (See Echium) 97 

Virgilia lutea 170 

Virginia-creeper. (See Ampdopsis 

quinquefolia) 171, 334 

Walks 36,40,41,46,369 

bed of 44 

bottoming 44 

construction of 40 

crowning 42 

finishing 46 

grading 40,42,44 

grass 321 

location of 5 

rock for 44 

rolling 44i46 

shaping 44 

staking off 5* 40 

Wallflower. (See Cheiranthus) 


1 398] 


Walnut. (Sec Juglans) . . 1 20 

Washingtoxia (California Fan Palm) 

15, 200, 201 

filifera 200 

Sonorse iS» 200 

Water, distribution of . . . . 17 

drainage of 38 

for bamboos 208 

for ferns 204 

for lawns 57 

for trees and shrubs .362 

for window-box plants . 296 

for young seedlings -311 

garden 281 

pipe 17 

after transplanting . -52 

stagnant in soil .* . . . • 39 

supply of : 2,17 

tank 18 

Water garden 281 

Water-lilies 285, 286, 287, 288, 346 

boxes for 286 

setting out .... 286, 287, 288 

soil for 286 

varieties 286 

Weeds in lawns 55, 57 

Weigela. (See Dier\nlla) . . 96, 356 
Whale-oil soap for aphides 


Whin, European 146 


WiGANDiA 333 

WiUD Flowers 336, 342 

Willow. (SeeSalix) . 154^^85,286,292 
Babylonian weeping ^^^V 154, 292 
golden ". . . . ^^^ . . 154 

white 154 

Window-box 295 

care of and general treatment 296, 298 

drainage of 295 

insects injurious to .... 298 

overhauling 296 

plants for 295 

size 295 

soil for 295 

watering 296 

Wire worms 369 

WiSTARL\ . . . 23, 24, 26, 28, 36, 180 

Japonica 181 

multijuga 181 

sinensis 181 

speciosa 181 

Wood ashes for slugs . .307 
Woodbint:. (See Lonicera) . .177 
WooDSiA 204 

WOODWARDIA 204, 293 

Yew. (See Taxus) 164 

English 164,324,326 

Irish or Florence Court .164 

Zinnia 279,335,345 



VC 11756